Classroom/ Laboratory Activity: Carbon Pricing Dashboard of the World Bank

An interactive visualization tool with map, data and downloadable graphs to understand the carbon pricing initiatives of various nations over a thirty-year period from 1991 to 2021. The tool ‘Carbon Pricing Dashboard- Map & Data’ of the World Bank includes greenhouse gas emissions, carbon prices implemented across different countries and the value of the carbon pricing initiatives  (ETS or Carbon Tax).

Students will be able to  explore data from different regions or countries, download the data/graphs on their carbon pricing data and draw comparisons to improve understanding of the real-world scenario of carbon pricing across various geographies. They will also be able to determine which carbon pricing initiative is most suitable for that region. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Discuss the share of the global greenhouse gas emissions by regions from 1991 to 2021 
  2. Carbon pricing is used as an instrument for making climate change policies. Discuss. 

About the tool

Tool NameCarbon Pricing Dashboard 
DisciplineEconomics
Topic(s) in DisciplineEnvironmental Economics, Carbon Pricing, Emissions Trading Systems (ETS) Cost-Benefit Analysis, Greenhouse Gas Emissions 
Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change 
Type of tool Classroom/ Laboratory Activity  
Grade LevelUndergraduate
LocationGlobal 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byThe World Bank
Hosted atThe World Bank
Linkhttps://carbonpricingdashboard.worldbank.org/map_data
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic 

Reading: The Social Cost of Carbon

A reading titled ‘The Social Cost of Carbon and the Shadow Price of Carbon’ by Richard Price, Simeon Thornton and Stephen Nelson  Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), London, that discusses the topics of social cost of carbon (SCC) and shadow pricing of carbon (SPC) when formulating appraisals and climate change policies. This resource uses the United Kingdom (UK) as the area of study but can also be used for other regions. The reading introduces the concepts of shadow prices and market prices and explains the link between them. It includes discussions  on the benefits of calculating both the SCC and the SPC to reflect the overall cost of greenhouse gas emissions to determine a well-informed stabilisation goal. It further includes discussions to understand the importance of climate informed policies in the economic assessment of a country.

Students will learn about the social cost of carbon and the shadow price of carbon. They will learn how to  compare the marginal abatement costs and social costs of carbon for different stabilization goals as determined by the Stern Review. Students will further learn the application of the SCC and the SPC when determining cost-effectiveness of resources, the concepts of discounting and discount rates for calculating carbon prices

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Carbon pricing is used as an instrument for making climate policies. Explain.
  2. What is the difference between market prices and shadow prices?
  3. What is the importance of shadow pricing in evaluating the costs of greenhouse gases?

About the tool

Tool NameThe Social Cost of Carbon and the Shadow Price of Carbon: what they are, and how to use them in economic appraisal in the UK 
DisciplineEconomics
Topic(s) in DisciplineEnvironmental Economics, Social Cost of Carbon, Shadow Price of Carbon, Carbon Pricing, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Market Price, Stabilization Goals, Marginal Abatement Cost, Emissions 
Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change 
Type of tool Reading 
Grade LevelUndergraduate, Graduate
LocationUnited Kingdom 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byRichard Price, Simeon Thornton and Stephen Nelson
Hosted atMunich Personal RePEc Archive (MPRA)
Linkhttps://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/74976/1/MPRA_paper_74976.pdf
AccessOnline/Offline 
Computer SkillsBasic 

Reading: Coffee Production and Food Security

A reading from ‘The Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene’ by The Center for Climate and Security that discusses the impact of climate change on crop security. The reading specifically discusses the impacts of climate change on coffee production in different parts of the world. It further lists countries that primarily rely on coffee export for economic sustainability and related security issues. 

Students will understand the impacts of climate change on food security. They will also learn how climate-sensitive crops such as coffee relate to economic and political stability in some parts of the world.  

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. How does climate change impact food security?
  2. What is the impact of climate change on coffee production?
  3. Discuss the impact of climate change on coffee production and security in Honduras and Uganda.

About the Tool 

Tool NameClimate, Coffee and Security
DisciplineSocial Sciences, International Relations
Topic(s) in DisciplineFood Security, Security, Coffee, Peace and Conflict Studies 
Climate Topic Climate and Agriculture; Climate Change and Food Security
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelUndergraduate
LocationGlobal, South America, Africa, Central America, Honduras, Uganda 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byShiloh Fetzek in Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene eds Caitlin E. Werrell and Francesco Femia
Hosted atThe Center for Climate and Security
Linkhttps://climateandsecurity.files.wordpress.com/2017/06/11_the-coffee-belt.pdf 
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: Climate Risk and Megacities

A reading from ‘The Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene’ by The Center for Climate and Security on the impacts of climate change on large urban cities.The reading describes risks and direct and indirect impacts of climate change on the security of urban cities specifically coastal megacities.

Students will understand the impacts of climate change on urban megacities including large coastal agglomerates. They will also learn about the fragility and resilience of cities vulnerable to security risks caused by climate change.They will further understand related security, environmental, human rights and governance issues and policies.  

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. How does climate change impact urban coastal cities? 
  2. How does climate change cause human migration and displacement? Give examples.
  3. Does migration to megacities create instability and conflict? 

About the Tool 

Tool NameCoastal Megacities vs. The Sea: Climate and Security in Urban Spaces
DisciplineSocial Sciences, International Relations
Topic(s) in DisciplineUrban Environment, Development Studies, Urbanization, Human Migration, Security, Peace and Conflict Studies
Climate Topic Climate and Society; Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelUndergraduate, Graduate
LocationGlobal 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byJanani Vivekananda and Neil Bhatiya in Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene eds Caitlin E. Werrell and Francesco Femia
Hosted atThe Center for Climate and Security
Linkhttps://climateandsecurity.files.wordpress.com/2017/06/7_coastal-megacities.pdf 
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: Human Migration and Displacement

A reading from ‘The Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene’ by The Center for Climate and Security on human migration and displacement caused by climate change. It describes the impacts of climate change on voluntary and forced human migration and displacement through examples from South Asia, the Middle East and western China.

Students will learn about the key drivers and impacts of climate change that influence migration and displacement. They will also understand the role of climate change in increasing the likelihood of regional conflict. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. How does climate change affect migration and displacement?
  2. What are the reasons behind involuntary and voluntary migration and displacement?
  3. What are the four drivers of migration that result from climate change?
  4. What role does climate change play in the likelihood of regional conflict?

About the Tool 

Tool NameMigration and Displacement in a Changing Climate
DisciplineSocial Sciences, International Relations
Topic(s) in DisciplineHuman Migration, Displacement, Conflict, Security, Peace and Conflict Studies
Climate Topic Climate and Society
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelHigh school, Undergraduate
LocationGlobal, South Asia, Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, China 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byRobert McLeman in Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene eds Caitlin E. Werrell and Francesco Femia
Hosted atThe Center for Climate and Security
Linkhttps://climateandsecurity.files.wordpress.com/2017/06/12_migration-and-displacement.pdf 
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: Introduction to Carbon Pricing

A reading by the World Bank Group that introduces what is carbon pricing and discusses the link between carbon pricing and climate change policies. The reading  includes sections on 

  1. Main types of carbon pricing
  2. International carbon pricing
  3. Regional, national and subnational carbon pricing
  4. Internal carbon pricing
  5. How to do carbon pricing right

Students will learn about carbon pricing and economic policy, decarbonisation, clean technology and market innovation. They will also learn about how carbon pricing can influence economic development and growth and inform climate change policies. Students will further learn about the types of carbon pricing that governments and businesses refer to in order to make well informed economic decisions. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What is carbon pricing?
  2. How is carbon pricing used as an instrument for climate change policies?

About the tool

Tool NameWhat is Carbon Pricing?
DisciplineEconomics
Topic(s) in DisciplineEnvironmental Economics, Carbon Pricing, Carbon Tax, Economic Growth, Climate Change Policies, Decarbonisation 
Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change; Policies, Politics, and Environmental Governance 
Type of tool Reading 
Grade LevelUndergraduate
LocationGlobal
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byThe World Bank  
Hosted atThe World Bank
Linkhttps://carbonpricingdashboard.worldbank.org/what-carbon-pricing
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic 

Reading: Climate Change Poetry

A set of poems commissioned by the Royal Society for Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) that feature 9 poems on the theme of climate change. The poems are based on the collective understanding of climate change and human response to this global phenomenon. These pieces were commissioned as part of ‘Seven Dimensions of Climate Change’ series of the RSA and include the following poems

  1. ‘A Climate of Change’ by George the Poet 
  2. ‘How’s My Coal’ by Simon Barraclough
  3. ‘Except for the Lone Wave’ by Grace Nichols 
  4. ‘Untitled’ by Tom Chivers 
  5. ‘We Have Everything We Need’ by Selena Nwulu
  6. ‘Water is Company’ by Ruth Padel 
  7. ‘Polar Heart’ by Simon Barraclough
  8. ‘Inheritance’ by John Agard 
  9. ‘Alongside Beans’ by Alice Oswald 

Students will learn about climate change and its impacts on society through poetry. They will also learn about linkages of  science and human emotion. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What is climate poetry?
  2. How can poetry be used to tackle the issue of climate change?
  3. What are the essential components of poetry? 

About the tool: 

Tool Name9 Original Poems on Climate Change
DisciplineHumanities
Topic(s) in DisciplinePoetry, Literature
Climate Topic Climate and Society  
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelHigh School, Undergraduate 
LocationGlobal
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byThe Royal Society for Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA) 
Hosted atThe Royal Society for Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (RSA)  
Linkhttps://www.thersa.org/globalassets/pdfs/events/climate-change-poetry-anthology.pdf
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Video: Food Insecurity in Somalia

A video titled ‘Locust swarm threatens Somalia food crisis’ by AP Archive that discusses the threat of the recent desert locust outbreak to Somalia’s food and crop production. The video also discusses how the rapid maturing of the desert locust may lead to mass breeding and result in further migration to other regions of Africa. The video highlights the fact that since Somalia may already be vulnerable, the locust outbreak could cause additional stress  and cause food insecurity. 

Students will learn about the link between climate change, changing weather patterns, desert locusts breeding and migration, and food insecurity in Somalia. They will also learn about potential strategies to prevent future outbreaks. Students will further understand the need for international cooperation to tackle the situation. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Discuss the impact of the desert locusts outbreak on agriculture and food security in Somalia.
  2. How has climate change caused changes  in weather patterns in Somalia? 

About the tool: 

Tool NameLocust swarm threatens Somalia food crisis
DisciplineSocial Sciences, Agricultural Sciences
Topic(s) in DisciplineLocust Plague, Desert Locust, Food Security, Agriculture
Climate Topic Climate Change and Food Security; Climate and Agriculture
Type of tool Video (5 mins 15 secs)
Grade LevelHigh School, Undergraduate 
LocationAfrica, East Africa, Somalia
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byAP Archive 
Hosted atYouTube
Linkhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aoclw68b0mM
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic

Video/Microlecture: Mental Health, Physical Health, and Climate Change

A video titled ‘Mental Health Issues and Climate Change’ by Lise Van Susteren, George Mason University, that discusses the link between climate change and mental health. The video discusses impacts of climate change on physical health such as inflamed brain tissue and mental health such as depression. The video also discusses the need to address individual and societal mental health impacts of climate change. 

Students will learn about the direct and indirect impacts of climate change on individuals and communities around the world. They will also learn about how global warming has potentially caused food and water ‘wars’, violence and distrust amongst individuals and communities. Students will further learn of how human activity has potentially contributed to global warming and the current climate crisis.

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Discuss some impacts of climate change on physical and mental health.
  2. What are some direct and indirect impacts of global warming and natural disasters on mental health?

About the tool: 

Tool NameMental Health Issues and Climate Change
DisciplineSocial Sciences, Psychology
Topic(s) in DisciplineClimate Psychology, Health, Mental Health, Violence, Conflict, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Stress, Anxiety
Climate Topic Climate and Health; Climate and Society
Type of tool Video/ Microlecture (12 mins)
Grade LevelUndergraduate 
LocationGlobal
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byCenter for Climate Change Communication, George Mason University
Hosted atYouTube
Linkhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vn9TlyhZBAw&list=PLE8B1470B8A846BB1&index=16
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic

Video/Microlecture: Climate Psychiatry

A microlecture titled ‘Climate Psychiatry: The Diverse Challenges of Climate Change to Mental Health’ by Robin Cooper and Alex Trope, University of California, that discusses the impact of climate change on mental and emotional health. The microlecture includes discussions on six different aspects of climate psychiatry:

  1. Slow moving disasters, 
  2. Acute climate disasters, 
  3. Vulnerable populations, 
  4. Extreme heat effects, 
  5. Eco-distress syndromes and 
  6. Engagement and action. 

Students will learn about the health emergency of climate change. They will be introduced to the field of Climate Psychiatry and how Mental health can be impacted by disruptions associated with climate change. Students will further learn about why it is necessary to understand these disruptions in order to tackle and mitigate climate change. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What is Climate Psychiatry?
  2. Discuss some impacts of climate change on mental health?
  3. How do heatwaves and other disasters affect individual and community health?

About the tool: 

Tool NameClimate Psychiatry: The Diverse Challenges of Climate Change to Mental Health
DisciplineSocial Sciences, Psychology
Topic(s) in DisciplineClimate Psychology, Climate Psychiatry, Psychiatry, Mental Health, Emotional Health, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, Stress, Anxiety
Climate Topic Climate and Health; Climate and Society
Type of tool Video/ Microlecture (1 hr)
Grade LevelUndergraduate 
LocationGlobal
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byUniversity of California
Hosted atYouTube
Linkhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1zpKgje9JHk
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change Part 2

A reading from the ‘Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change’ by economist Nicholas Stern for the Government of the United Kingdom which contains predictions on mortality, ecosystems and income levels. This reading includes results of their modelling that states that climate change will cause an average of 5% reduction in the global per capita consumption over the next 2 centuries, with an addition of 145 – 220 million people falling below poverty line in South Asian and sub-Saharan Africa by 2100, and an expected increase in child mortality to 165,000 – 250,000 children per year.  The reading is subdivided into four chapters, as follows:

  1. How climate change will affect people around the world: This chapter draws correlations between climate change and potential implications for access to food, water stress, health and well-being, land and the environment. It gives a detailed analysis of global warming implications from 1ºC rise up to temperature change of 5ºC and above. [pp 55 – 91 (as per table of contents) or pp 100 – 136 (as per scrolling)]
  2. Implications of climate change for development: This chapter looks at developing countries and their vulnerability to climate change due to their dependence on climate sensitive sectors such as agriculture. Apart from food insecurity and damage to the healthcare systems, there will be mass migrations and conflict which will hamper growth and development. [pp 92 – 121 (as per table of contents) or pp 137 – 166 (as per scrolling)]
  3. Costs of climate change in developed countries: This chapter looks at the impacts of climate change on the developed countries and explains how for moderate amounts of warming some higher latitude countries will face short-term benefits due to rise in agriculture yields, lower winter mortality, lower heating requirements and possible boosts in tourism. However, they will face disastrous impacts due to climate shocks at higher temperatures. [pp 122 – 142 (as per table of contents) or pp 167 – 187 (as per scrolling)]
  4. Economic modelling of climate change impacts: This chapter details the modelling work conducted for estimating the monetary impact of climate change by using an Integrated Assessment Model with a temperature rise of 2-3ºC as the starting point. [pp 143 – 167 (as per table of contents) or pp 188 – 212 (as per scrolling)]

Students will learn how melting glaciers, crop yield decline, ocean acidification, displacement, malnutrition, rising sea levels and species extinction will impact the global economy through empirical analysis. They will also learn what makes developing countries most vulnerable to climate change. They will understand how certain adverse effects of climate change are already underway and early mitigation may be the only way to control the impacts. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to:

  1. How will a 2ºC temperature rise scenario differ from a 4ºC temperature rise scenario?
  2. Discuss climate vulnerabilities of:
    1. Developed Countries
    2. Developing Countries
  3. Define and explain the ‘Mendelsohn’ model, the ‘Tol’ model, and the ‘Nordhaus’ model.

About the Tool

Tool NamePart II: The Impacts of climate change on growth and development from Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change 
DisciplineEconomics
Topic(s) in DisciplineEconomics of Climate Change, Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, International Economics, Econometrics, Integrated Assessment Model, Per Capita Consumption, GDP, Economic Growth
Climate TopicEnergy, Economics and Climate Change; Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance
Type of toolReading (pp 55 to 167 ) –  as per table of content; (pp 100 – 212) – as per scrolling
Grade LevelUndergraduate, Graduate
LocationGlobal
LanguageEnglish
Translation
Developed byNicholas Stern
Hosted atGrupo de Pesquisa em Mudancas Climaticas (GPMC), Brazil
Linkhttp://mudancasclimaticas.cptec.inpe.br/~rmclima/pdfs/destaques/sternreview_report_complete.pdf
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: The Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change Part 3

A reading from the ‘Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change’ by economist Nicholas Stern for the Government of the United Kingdom which contains discussions on the need to stabilise greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and the subsequents cost of doing the same. The reading is subdivided into seven chapters, as follows:

  1. Projecting the growth of greenhouse gas emissions: This chapter discusses the past drivers of global emissions growth and a future prediction with ‘business-as-usual’ scenario in case of climate policy inaction.  [pp 169 – 192 (as per table of contents) or pp 214- 237 (as per scrolling)]
  2. The challenge of stabilisation: This chapter details steps that can be taken to stabilise GHG emissions and the cost of delay. [pp 193 – 210 (as per table of contents) or pp 238 – 255 (as per scrolling)]
  3. Identifying the costs of mitigation: This chapter looks at how mitigation costs are identified for various methods to reduce GHG emissions, who will pay for them, and what will be the long-term impacts of GHG cost-cutting. [pp 211 – 238 (as per table of contents) or pp 256 – 283(as per scrolling)]
  4. Macroeconomic models of costs: This chapter goes into the modelling approaches to calculate costs, the factors that may impact these costs, and how GHG emission cost-cutting might affect GDP. [pp 239 – 252 (as per table of contents) or pp 284 – 297 (as per scrolling)]
  5. Structural change and competitiveness: This chapter looks at the impacts of climate-change policies about market structure, trade, location and industrial emissions on market competitiveness.  [pp 253 – 268 (as per table of contents) or pp 298 – 313(as per scrolling)]
  6. Opportunities and wider benefits from climate policies: This chapter looks at the benefits and opportunities of climate change action for various industries and services and how it will impact the overall financial market.  [pp 269 -283 (as per table of contents) or pp 314 – 328 (as per scrolling)]
  7. Towards a goal for climate change policy: This chapter looks at cost-benefit analysis and climate change policy in the long run with a focus on fast changes to avoid adverse risks.  [pp 284 – 307 (as per table of contents) or pp 329 – 352(as per scrolling)]

Students will learn the cause of the rise in greenhouse gas emissions and how, due to advancement in energy technology, income growth is no longer solely dependent on emission growth. They will also learn that the benefits of climate change policies for markets and industries outweigh its costs in the long-run. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to:

  1. What will happen if we continue with the ‘business-as-usual’ scenario of greenhouse gas emissions?
  2. State cost-effective methods and techniques to reduce greenhouse gas emission.
  3. How does The Review calculate marginal costs and marginal benefits of climate change policy?

About the Tool

Tool NamePart III: The economics of stabilisation from Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change 
DisciplineEconomics
Topic(s) in DisciplineEconomics of Climate Change, Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, International Economics, Integrated Assessment Model, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Economic Policy, Competitive Market Policies
Climate TopicEnergy, Economics and Climate Change; Climate Mitigation and Adaptation; Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance
Type of toolReading (pp 168 to 307) –  as per table of content; (pp 213 – 352) – as per scrolling
Grade LevelUndergraduate, Graduate
LocationGlobal
LanguageEnglish
Translation
Developed byNicholas Stern
Hosted atGrupo de Pesquisa em Mudancas Climaticas (GPMC), Brazil
LinkLink
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Classroom/ Laboratory activity: Climate Mitigation and Willingness to Pay

A classroom/laboratory activity based on data on citizens’ willingness to pay to reduce carbon emissions as a method of mitigating climate change. This data is collected through an online survey by the German government and is available for download in Excel, R, and Google Sheet formats.

Students will be able to analyse the data to construct indices for measuring attitudes or opinions. They will also learn to use Cronbach’s alpha and Likert scale. Additionally, they will use mean, standard deviation, correlation/correlation coefficient, and confidence interval to analyze the results. Through this activity, they will be able to compare the measures of willingness to pay with climate policymaking. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What is ‘willingness to pay’?
  2. How to measure willingness to pay for non-market goods like abatement to pollution?
  3. What is Cronbach’s alpha? How is it used to assess indices for internal consistency?

About the tool

Tool NameMeasuring Willingness to Pay for Climate Change Mitigation
DisciplineEconomics
Topic(s) in DisciplineWillingness to Pay (WTP), Likert Scale, Cronbach’s Alpha, Value of Abatement, Contingent Valuation
Climate Topic Climate Mitigation and Adaptation; Energy, Economics and Climate Change; Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance
Type of tool Classroom/ Laboratory Activity  
Grade LevelUndergraduate
LocationGlobal, Germany
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byCORE Project
Hosted atCORE Project Website
Linkhttps://www.core-econ.org/doing-economics/book/text/11-01.html
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsIntermediate

Reading: Willingness to Cooperate and Climate Policy

A reading titled ‘Cooperation in the Climate Commons’ by the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP), University of Leeds and The Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Policy. This working paper describes the willingness to cooperate as a climate solution and how it is impacted by different mitigation efforts.

Students will learn how mitigation efforts depend either on an individual’s willingness to voluntarily adapt ‘green’ consumer behaviour or through enforcement of costly public policy or a combination of the two. They will further study how various factors, such as peer pressure, social interventions, individual beliefs, trust in economic development, and local punishment policies, impact mitigation efforts. They will also learn how international and domestic climate policy affects individuals’ willingness to cooperate. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What are ‘climate commons’?
  2. How does willingness to cooperate through voluntary adaptation of green consumer behaviour differ from forceful implementation of costly public policy?
  3. What is the ‘zero-contribution’ proposition and why did the study reject it?

About the tool

Tool NameCooperation in the Climate Commons
DisciplineEconomics
Topic(s) in DisciplineEconomic Theory, Willingness to Cooperate, Public Policy, Climate Commons, Global Commons, Tragedy of the Commons, Mitigation
Climate Topic Climate Mitigation and Adaptation; Energy, Economics and Climate Change; Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance
Type of tool Reading (pp 1 – 32)
Grade LevelUndergraduate
LocationGlobal, 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byThe Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy (CCCEP), University of Leeds and The Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Policy. Authored by Stefano Carattini, Simon Levin and Alessandro Tavoni
Hosted atCentre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, UK
Linkhttps://www.cccep.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/working-paper-259-Carattini-et-al.pdf?from_serp=1
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: Willingness to Pay for Climate Stability

A review article by Evan Johnson and Gregory Nemet, Robert M. La Follete School of Public Affairs at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, on willingness to pay (WTP) for climate policy. This working paper is divided into five sections as follows:

  1. Section 1 describes the characteristics of WTP as an empirical tool for climate stability.
  2. Section 2 discusses literature review on WTP for climate policy, through to social and behavioural aspects.
  3. Section 3 explains calculations used and the results of comparison of various studies.
  4. Section 4 discusses a new research agenda to improve factors for identifying WTP.
  5. Section 5 concludes the study.

Students will learn about WTP in context to climate stability and the need to study it. They will also learn about which factors are commonly used to identify WTP and how they are calculated through empirical assessment. Additionally they will also learn about the challenges of using the current factors in determining the WTP and what can be done to improve its measurement.

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What is willingness to pay (WTP)?
  2. How is WTP calculated with regards to climate policy?
  3. What factors are commonly used to define willingness to change and how can they be improved?

About the tool

Tool NameWillingness to Pay for Climate Policy: A Review of Estimates
DisciplineEconomics
Topic(s) in DisciplineWillingness to Pay (WTP), Economic Theory, Public Policy, Integrated Assessment Model, Consumer Psychology
Climate Topic Climate Mitigation and Adaptation; Energy, Economics and Climate Change; Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance
Type of tool Reading (pp 1 – 32)
Grade LevelUndergraduate
LocationGlobal 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byEvan Johnson and Gregory Nemet, Robert M. La Follete School of Public Affairs at the University of Wisconsin-Madison
Hosted atSocial Science Research Network Website
Linkhttps://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1626931
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: Pollution Permits and Opportunity Costs

A reading by Holt et al. in the International Review of Economics Education, provided by The Economics Network, UK, that can be used for a classroom/laboratory activity to teach your students to identify and account for opportunity costs in production decisions.

Students will learn about opportunity costs and tradable emission permits as a part of the cap and trade scheme. They will also learn of challenges in decision-making through a role-playing activity in which the students get to set production quantities within the limits of their emissions permits. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Define the following:
    1. Opportunity Cost
    2. Production Cost
    3. Cap and Trade
    4. Pollution/Emissions Permit
  2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using tradable emissions permits in the context of climate change?

About the tool

Tool NameTeaching Opportunity Cost in an Emissions Permit Experiment
DisciplineEconomics
Topic(s) in DisciplineOpportunity Costs, Consumer Choices, Fixed Market price, Tradable Pollution/ Emission Permits, Emission Permit Allocation, Cap and Trade Schemes
Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change
Type of tool Reading (pp 34 – 42)
Grade LevelUndergraduate
LocationGlobal 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byCharles Holt, Erica Myers, Markus Wråke, Svante Mandell and Dallas Burtraw
Hosted atInternational Review of Economics Education, provided by The Economics Network, UK
LinkLink
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Video: Gene Editing in Tomato Plants

A video that describes a new gene editing technology, ‘CRISPR: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats’, which could be utilized in agricultural production in response to climate change. This video by Zachary Lippman, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL), highlights his use of CRISPR gene editing in two varieties of tomato plants to make them flower and ripen earlier than usual.

Students will learn briefly about growth cycles in tomato plants, and their tendency to reduce yield when days are longer. They will further understand the use of CRISPR technology in tomato plants and how this approach is useful to obtain faster and higher yields of the tomato crop.

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Discuss how climate change might impact the growth of the tomato plant.
  2. Discuss the role of CRISPR in agricultural production using the tomato crop as an example. 

About the tool

Tool NameGene editing yields tomatoes that flower and ripen weeks earlier
DisciplineBiological Sciences
Topic(s) in DisciplineGene Editing, CRISPR, Tomato Plant, Cultivation
Climate Topic Climate and Agriculture; Climate and the Biosphere
Type of tool Video (3 mins)
Grade LevelHigh School
LocationGlobal
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byZachary Lippman
Hosted atCold Spring Harbor Laboratory on YouTube
LinkLink
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: GM Crops in Sub-Saharan Africa

A reading by John Agaba, Alliance for Science, Cornell University, that describes the importance of food security in Sub-Saharan Africa, in the face of climate change. This reading includes several examples of genetically modified crops and why they are favoured by farmers in Sub-Saharan African countries.

Students will learn about genetically modified crops and some arguments surrounding their utilization. They will further understand how genetically modified crops could possibly bolster food security in several Sub-Saharan African countries that are dealing with failed crops due to climate change.

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Briefly describe Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). 
  2. Why do farmers prefer to plant hybrid or genetically modified crops? List some of the examples.
  3. Discuss the arguments surrounding GM crop utilization in Africa.

About the tool

Tool NameAfrican farmers want GMO seeds to help weather climate change
DisciplineBiological Sciences
Topic(s) in DisciplineGenetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), GMO Crops
Climate Topic Climate and Agriculture; Climate and the Biosphere; Climate Mitigation and Adaptation
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelHigh School
LocationGlobal, Africa
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byJohn Agaba
Hosted atAlliance for Science, Cornell University
LinkLink
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: Insect Behaviour and Temperature Variation

A short reading from Chapter 1, Lesson 3 of ‘Integrating Climate Change Issues in Southeast Asian Schools; A Teachers’ Guide’ that describes how changes in temperature can affect insect life cycles and populations. This lesson titled  ‘Interesting Insects’ by the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) highlights the implications of increased temperatures on insect behavior.

Students will understand how temperature variations can directly impact insect behavior due to their cold-blooded physiology. They will also learn about the potential increase in populations and life cycles per season of insects or pests.  

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. How do temperature variations affect the physiology of insects? 
  2. Discuss how climate change can affect insect behaviour and populations?   

About the tool

Tool Name‘Interesting Insects’ (Chapter 1, Lesson 3, Pages 42-43: Main Concepts and Skills)
DisciplineBiological Sciences
Topic(s) in DisciplineAnimal Behavior, Insects, Insect Behavior, Life Cycle, Insect Biodiversity
Climate Topic Climate and the Biosphere
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelHigh School
LocationGlobal
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed bySoutheast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO)
Hosted atSoutheast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) Website
LinkLink
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Video: To Bee or Not To Bee

A video that describes how climate change affects plants and insect pollination. This video by NASA scientist, Wayne Esaias, describes current research on impacts of climate change on pollination cycles of bees using satellite imagery. 

Students will learn that global warming has potentially caused changes in flowering period that may not coincide with bee visitation periods; thus, impacting pollination in flowering plants. They will further understand the interdependence of bees and flowering plants and how climate change may affect their survival.

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Discuss, with an example, the plant-pollinator system in the classroom.
  2. How is climate change impacting the pollination of flowers by honey bees? 

About the tool

Tool NameSting of Climate Change
DisciplineBiological Sciences
Topic(s) in DisciplinePollination, Fertilization, Flowering, Insect Pollination, Pollinators, Plant-Pollinator Systems
Climate Topic Climate and the Biosphere
Type of tool Video (5 mins)
Grade LevelHigh School, Middle School
LocationGlobal
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byWayne Esaias
Hosted atNASA Scientific Visualization Studio
LinkLink
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic