Search Resources

Search Resources

As an Undergraduate Biological Sciences or Environmental Sciences teacher, you can use this lesson plan to teach your students about zoonosis, the increased risk of inter-species virus spillover due to climate change, infectious diseases such as COVID-19 and their modes of transmission.

In this lesson plan, students will be taught how the occurrence of newly emerging infectious diseases like COVID-19 with zoonotic (vertebrate animal to human) transmission are rising due to the closer interactions of humans and wild animals that result in an increased exposure to animal viruses. Greater human-animal conflicts are largely due to environmental changes such as habitat degradation and biodiversity loss caused by anthropogenic activities.

Through this lesson plan your students will learn that human activities induced climate change in turn causes biodiversity disturbances and could be responsible for the increased risk of animal virus spillover into human populations. Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Biological Sciences and Environmental Sciences.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is the zoonotic transmission of a disease? Give examples.
  2. Why is there an increased incidence of newly emerging viruses in recent times?
  3. How could climate change increase the risk of inter-species virus spillover in the future?
  4. How has climate change affected the occurrence of vector-borne and infectious diseases?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Biological Sciences, Environmental Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Infectious Diseases, Disease Transmission,

Zoonosis, Virus Spillover, Biodiversity Disturbance,

Animal-Borne Diseases

Climate Topic Climate and the Anthroposphere,

Climate and the Biosphere

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
120 min

Contents

Reading

(20 min)

A reading to introduce the role of climate in the occurrence of infectious diseases.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(20 min)

A reading to explain how climate change related species range shifts and biodiversity disturbances could raise the risk of pandemics.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(20 min)

A research article that describes how changing habitats for mammalian populations can increase the risk of inter-species virus spillover.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom/ Laboratory Activity

(50 min)

A classroom/laboratory activity to extend understanding of range shifts due to climate variables, for a species of choice.

This can be accessed here.

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

1 Introduce the role of climate in the occurrence of infectious diseases.

 

Use the reading, ‘Climate Change and Infectious Diseases’ by the World Health Organization, to explain the association of infectious diseases with climatic conditions. Use the text to describe the various modes of transmission of viral diseases in humans, in animals, and between animals and humans. Explain what zoonotic transmission is, in the context of the SARS-CoV-2. Refer to table 6.1 in the text to discuss examples of how environmental changes have affected the occurrence of various infectious diseases in humans in the past. Finally, use the text to emphasize how different methods of predictive modelling have shown that climate change could result in changes in infectious disease transmission patterns.

 

2 Discuss how climate change related species range shifts and biodiversity disturbances could raise the risk of pandemics.

 

Use the reading, ‘Q & A: Could climate change and biodiversity loss raise the risk of pandemics?’ by Daisy Dunne for Carbon Brief, to explain to your students how climate change induced biodiversity disturbances could influence the risk of diseases being transmitted from animals to humans. Use the reading to describe how and why a pandemic could develop when climate change affects the biogeographical distribution of species. Explain how rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns have resulted in some species seeking newer areas. Emphasize on how such movements could increase the contact between animals and humans, and the viruses harbored by them. Highlight how these interactions are exacerbated by human land-use changes such as deforestation and habitat degradation leading to habitat loss. Finally, discuss how all these factors can be responsible for the increased risk of animal-borne diseases crossing over into humans.

 

3 Describe how changing habitats for mammalian populations can increase the risk of inter-species virus spillover. Use the research article, ‘Global shifts in mammalian population trends reveal key predictors of virus spillover risk’ by Christine K. Johnson et al., to explain why zoonotic viruses transmission risk has risen with some animals having shifted their ranges and adapted to more human-dominated landscapes. Discuss the anthropogenic activities that have resulted in greater animal-human interactions and facilitated zoonotic disease transmission.

 

4 Extend understanding of range shifts due to climate variables, for a species of choice.

 

Use this classroom/laboratory activity, ‘Species Range Over Space and Time’ by Debra Linton, Anna Monfils, Libby Ellwood, Molly Phillips on Qubes, to enable students to analyze data for a chosen species from natural history collections for its range shift due to rising temperatures. Follow the instructions given to complete the activity. This tool will enable students to understand the effect of global temperatures on species’ distributions by analyzing a large dataset. Use the questions given in the accompanying activity sheet to initiate discussions about the impact of species range shifts on changing biotic interactions and their influence on human well-being. Discuss students’ findings in the context of the raised risk of climate-induced virus spillover and the possibility of pandemics.

 

Log into Facebook | Facebook

Log into Facebook to start sharing and connecting with your friends, family, and people you know.

WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard

World Health Organization Coronavirus disease situation dashboard presents official daily counts of COVID-19 cases and deaths worldwide, while providing a hub to other resources. Interactive tools, including maps, epidemic curves and other charts and graphics, with downloadable data, allow users to track and explore the latest trends, numbers and statistics at global, regional and country levels.

As an Undergraduate Social Sciences or Biological Sciences teacher, you can use this lesson plan to teach your students about demography, population trends, urbanization, and the role of demographics in the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 and the increased risk of pandemics due to climate change.

In this lesson plan, students will be taught about population patterns, urbanization, and the relation of demography and the environment. This lesson plan will allow you to teach your students how demographic changes due to factors such as climate change, can make human populations more vulnerable to pandemics like COVID-19.

Through an interactive online activity, this lesson plan will enable students to apply understanding of demographics such as population density and mortality rates on the risk of transmission of an infectious disease like COVID-19 and on the efficacy of vaccination programs against it. Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Social Sciences and Biological Sciences.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is demography and what are the demographic measurements for a population?
  2. What is urbanization and how does it affect human ecology?
  3. What is the relation of demography with the environment?
  4. How does the study of demography help explain the rate of transmission and mortality rates of an infectious disease such as COVID-19?
  5. How do demographic changes due to climate change increase the risk of pandemics?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Social Sciences, Biological Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Demography, Population Trends and Patterns

Population Density, Urbanization

Fertility and Mortality Rates, Human Ecology

Climate Topic Climate and the Anthroposphere

Climate and the Biosphere

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online,
Approximate
Time Required
70-90 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(30 min)

A teaching module to introduce demography, population trends, urbanization, and the influence of the environment and climate change.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(10 min)

A reading to explain how demographic changes can affect the vulnerability of populations to pandemics like COVID-19.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(10 min)

A report that describes how demographic science helps explain the spread and fatality rates of COVID-19.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom/ Laboratory Activity

(75-90+ min)

An interactive simulation to extend student understanding of the role of demographics in the rate of transmission of various diseases and on the efficacy of vaccines against them.

This can be accessed here.

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

 

1 Introduce the topics of demography, population trends, and urbanization. Use the teaching module, ‘Introduction to Population, Urbanization, and the Environment’ by OpenStaxTM to teach your students about demography, population trends and patterns, fertility and mortality rates, demographic theories, and urbanization. Describe the changing demographics of a population from various sociological perspectives such as climate-induced human migrations. Finally, explain how urbanization has led to environmental concerns that are exacerbated due to climate change.

This can be accessed here.

2 Explain how demography determines the vulnerability of populations to pandemics. Use the article, ‘How Demographic Changes Make Us More Vulnerable to Pandemics Like the Coronavirus’ by Toshiko Kaneda and Charlotte Greenbaum for Population Research Bureau (PRB) to describe how current population trends enable viral transmission and raise the possibility of a pandemic such as COVID-19. Discuss how population mobility has enabled viral transmission across the world and population density has determined the rate of transmission of the disease. Explain how urbanization has greatly influenced the viral transmission of COVID-19. Further, discuss the vulnerability of a population due to age related pattern of mortality. Finally, emphasize how these demographic changes make populations vulnerable to pandemics.

This can be accessed here.

3 Discuss the demographic patterns of transmission of COVID-19. Use the report, ‘Demographic science aids in understanding the spread and fatality rates of COVID-19’ by Jennifer B. Dowd et al. in PNAS to explain the demographic trends of COVID-19 transmission in a population. Emphasize on the relevance of demographic science in elucidating the population patterns observed in the rates of disease transmission and the associated mortality rates.

This can be accessed here.

4 Conduct a classroom/laboratory activity to extend understanding about demographic parameters in the rate of transmission of an infectious disease. Use the interactive lab activity, ‘Disease Lab’ by Annenberg Learner, to enable students to understand the rate of transmission of various hypothetical diseases under changing demographic parameters. This activity can be conducted in conjunction with another lab activity- ‘Demographics Lab’ to better understand the demographic parameters under consideration. Direct the students to follow the instructions given in the activity sheets to analyze the results of the simulations and formulate answers to the given questions. Extend the activity to analyze the scenarios of disease progression with or without vaccination programs. Use the current population and mortality data rates in your region to run the simulations in the context of COVID-19 and summarize the findings.

This can be accessed here.

WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard

World Health Organization Coronavirus disease situation dashboard presents official daily counts of COVID-19 cases and deaths worldwide, while providing a hub to other resources. Interactive tools, including maps, epidemic curves and other charts and graphics, with downloadable data, allow users to track and explore the latest trends, numbers and statistics at global, regional and country levels.

As an Undergraduate Economics teacher, you can use this lesson plan to teach your students how countries around the world design economic policies for a ‘green recovery’ from the economic downturn due to the COVID-19 pandemic, by reducing carbon emissions while boosting their economies.

Through this lesson plan your students will be introduced to one of the most significant issues of our times- Climate Change- and will be able to learn how economic policies can be designed for a ‘green recovery’ from the coronavirus pandemic. In this lesson plan, students will be able to learn through a classroom activity, the role of carbon pricing in the reduction of carbon emissions and its significance for climate mitigation. Further, this activity will enable students to discuss how carbon pricing vis a vis carbon taxes, could help governments’ ‘green recovery’ economic strategies to rebound from the COVID-19 pandemic related economic slowdown. Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Economics.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What does ‘green recovery’ mean in economic terms in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic?
  2. What are some of the economic stimulus packages designed by governments for a ‘green recovery’ from the coronavirus pandemic?
  3. How does carbon pricing help to reduce carbon emissions? What is its significance in the economic recovery plans from the COVID-19 pandemic?
  4. What could be the impact of ‘green recovery’ economic policies for climate mitigation?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Economics
Topic(s) in Discipline Environmental Economics, Green Recovery

Carbon Emissions, Carbon Pricing, Carbon Taxes

Climate Topic Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance

Energy, Economics and Climate Change

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
120-150 min

Contents

Reading

(10 min)

A reading to introduce the COVID-19 narrative alongside climate change, in defining future economic policies.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(25 min)

An interactive webpage to track the world’s COVID-19 related ‘green recovery’ plans aimed at reducing carbon emissions while boosting economies.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(10 min)

A policy brief about the importance of pricing carbon for a ‘green recovery’ from the coronavirus pandemic.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom/ Laboratory Activity

(75-90+ min)

A classroom activity to enable discussion on economic policy options such as carbon pricing, carbon taxes, and emissions trading for reducing carbon emissions in the context of ‘green recovery’ from the COVID-19 pandemic.

This can be accessed here.

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

1 Introduce the COVID-19 narrative alongside climate change, in defining future economic policies Use the reading, ‘The coming battle for the COVID-19 narrative’ by Samuel Bowles, Research Professor and Director of the Behavioral Sciences Program, Santa Fe Institute and Wendy Carlin, Professor of Economics, UCL for VOX, CEPR Policy Portal, to explain how the COVID-19 pandemic will be an important consideration alongside climate change, in the future narrative of economics and public policy.

This can be accessed here.

2 Introduce the economic strategies planned by governments world-wide to enable a ‘green recovery’ from the coronavirus pandemic

 

Use the webpage, ‘Coronavirus: Tracking how the world’s ‘green recovery’ plans aim to cut emissions’ by Carbon Brief to explain the different strategies planned by various governments for their nations’ economic recovery. Use the in-built interactive grid to discuss the measures aimed at reducing carbon emissions- referred as ‘green’ measures- for several major economies such as United Kingdom, European Union, China, and India. Highlight the sector-wise application of monetary policy such as stimulus packages, unconditional bailouts, grants, loans, and tax reliefs to enable a post-pandemic green economic recovery.

This can be accessed here.

3 Discuss the importance of pricing carbon for a ‘green recovery’ from the coronavirus pandemic

 

Use the policy brief, ‘Pricing carbon during the economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic’ by the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment and the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy, to discuss their recommendations for governments globally including zero-carbon investments, removal of fossil-fuel subsidies, and using carbon pricing revenues for economic recovery. Emphasize on carbon pricing as an effective strategy to reduce carbon emissions worldwide (refer to the additional resources section).

This can be accessed here.

4 Conduct a classroom activity to enable discussion on economic policy options for reducing carbon emissions Use the classroom activity, ‘Carbon Emissions Game’ by Gautam Sethi, Bard College for SERC, to enable discussion on economic policy options such as carbon pricing, carbon taxes, and emissions trading for reducing carbon emissions. Follow the instructions for the activity and conduct discussions on the effective use of economic tools such as carbon pricing in reducing carbon emissions for the global economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.

This can be accessed here.

As an Undergraduate Economics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching about opportunity costs using an in-class experiment of trading emissions permits for the use of a hypothetical fuel that emits greenhouse gases.

Global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fuel, is an important aspect of climate change. This lesson plan will enable your students to apply their understanding of opportunity costs for the use of a greenhouse gas emitting fuel in product manufacturing. This resource will allow your students to experiment with individual/consumer choices and budget constraints for production decisions by trading emissions permits at a fixed market price in an interactive classroom experiment. Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Economics.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is the opportunity cost in economics? Give an example.
  2. How is opportunity cost calculated?
  3. What are tradable pollution/emissions permits and how do they work?
  4. What are the economic policy measures used to address the opportunity cost of carbon emissions?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Economics
Topic(s) in Discipline Opportunity Sets, Opportunity Costs, Individual Choices, Consumer Choices, Budget Constraints, Fixed Market price, Becker-DeGroot-Marshak (BDM), Market Failures and Externalities, Tradable Pollution/ Emission Permits, Emission Permit Allocation,
Cap and Trade Schemes
Climate Topic Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Energy, Economics and Climate Change

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
45-60 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(15 min)

A teaching module to introduce individual/consumer choices, budget constraints, and opportunity costs.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(30 – 45 min)

An in-class interactive activity to teach opportunity costs of product manufacturing through the trading of hypothetical emissions permits.

This can be accessed here.

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

1 Topic introduction and discussion Use the teaching module, ‘2.1 How Individuals Make Choices Based on Their Budget Constraint’ by OpenStaxTM, Rice University, to introduce the topic of opportunity costs in economics. Use the tool to explain individual/consumer choices based on budget constraints and how this gets factored into opportunity costs.

Use the exercises given in the text to illustrate these economic concepts. You may also choose to use another teaching module by CORE Project (link is given in additional resources section) to enable a better understanding of opportunity costs using several other examples and exercises given in the text.

This can be accessed here.

2 Apply understanding Use the academic paper, ‘Teaching Opportunity Cost in an Emissions Permit Experiment’ by Charles Holt et al., International Review of Economics Education, provided by The Economics Network, UK, to conduct an in-class individual choice experiment to teach your students to identify and account for opportunity costs in production decisions. The students play the role of producers and must make production quantity decisions based on the costs of fuel input and the associated emissions permits.

Explain what these tradable pollution/emissions permits are and how they affect the opportunity costs of production. Follow the instructions given in the paper to conduct the classroom activity. This activity is designed to be paper-based or conducted online using the Veconlab software (details given in text). Use the suggested extensions and discussion points given in the paper to initiate classroom discussions about the use of tradable emissions permits, the cap and trade schemes, and the permit allocation systems.

Finally, discuss how these decisions based on opportunity costs in production are relevant in the context of human-induced climate change.

This can be accessed here.

As a High School or Undergraduate teacher in Environmental Sciences, Social Sciences, or Agricultural Sciences, you can use this lesson plan to teach your students about the desert locust outbreaks of 2019-2020, how it may be causing food insecurity in some countries, and the link between the current locust outbreak with unusual weather and climate conditions.

Massive locust swarms, sometimes as large as the size of cities, have caused widespread damage to crops in parts of East Africa, South Asia, and the Arabian peninsula since October 2019 leading to a potential food crisis in some nations. The situation is further exacerbated as relief measures are hampered due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. It is thought that unusually wet and warmer weather conditions driven by climate change caused favorable breeding conditions for the locusts. According to the UN secretary general, António Guterres, “There is a link between climate change and the unprecedented locust crisis plaguing Ethiopia and East Africa. Warmer seas mean more cyclones generating the perfect breeding ground for locusts.”
This lesson plan provides teaching resources to introduce the desert locust plague of 2019-20 and how it is causing a potential food crisis in some countries such as Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. It focuses on how unusual weather conditions caused by the Indian Ocean Dipole could have led to favorable conditions for the locust breeding and that future locust outbreaks could become more common in a warmer world.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a topic in Environmental Sciences, Social Sciences, or Agricultural Sciences.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is desert locust? How big are locust swarms?
  2. What countries are affected by the locust plague of 2019-20?
  3. How is the locust plague causing food insecurity in some countries?
  4. What weather conditions are favorable for locust breeding?
  5. How has climate change affected weather patterns in East Africa?
  6. Is climate change responsible for the current locust outbreak?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Environmental Sciences, Social Sciences, Agricultural Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Locust Plague, Desert Locust, Food Security

Agriculture, Climate Change and Food Security

Climate Topic Introduction to Climate Change

Climate and the Biosphere

Location Africa, Asia, Kenya, Ethiopia,

Somalia, Yemen, India, Pakistan

Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
60 min

Contents

Reading

(10 min)

A reading on desert locusts and locust plagues from the Desert Locust Information Service of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(15 min)

A reading on food security and the countries that experienced potential food shortages due to the locust swarms of the World Resources Institute (WRI). This reading is titled ‘Which Countries Are Most Vulnerable to Locust Swarms?’ by Tina Huang.

This can be accessed here.

Readings

(30 min)

Two readings on how the current locust plague is potentially linked to climate change.

 

Reading 1: ‘A plague of locusts has descended on East Africa. Climate change may be to blame’ by Madeleine Stone for the National Geographic

Reading 2: ‘Are the 2019-20 locust swarms linked to climate change?’ by Daisy Dunne at CarbonBrief

Video

(4 min)

Optional: A video on the Indian Ocean Dipole which affects the weather patterns in East Africa to West Australia by Prof Tracey Rogers, UNSW, Sydney.

This can be accessed here.

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

1 Introduce the topic of Desert Locusts Introduce your students to desert locusts and locust plagues using a reading from the Desert Locust Information Service of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO).

This resource can be accessed here.

Use the Frequently Asked Questions section and direct your students to read the following short sections.

1.     What is a Desert Locust?

2.     What countries are affected by the Desert Locust?

3.     Do Desert Locust plagues occur with any regularity?

4.     How long does a Desert Locust live?

5.     How many eggs does a Desert Locust female produce?

6.     How far and how fast can Desert Locusts migrate?

7.     How big are swarms and how many locusts are there in a swarm?

8.     What percentage of the Desert Locust's exoskeleton is chitin?

9.     How much food can a Desert Locust eat?

10.  What is the relationship between locusts and ecology?

11.  Why do locusts change their behaviour?

2 The Locust Outbreak and Food Insecurity Introduce the topic of food security and the countries that experienced potential food shortages due to the locust swarms through an interactive reading of the World Resources Institute (WRI) titled ‘Which Countries Are Most Vulnerable to Locust Swarms?’ by Tina Huang.

This resource can be accessed here.

 Discuss with your students which countries are hotspots of locust activity in the Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and South Asia and how the locust swarms are causing potential food insecurity there. The resource includes datasets and visualizations of vulnerable countries from the World Food Programme, real-time data on locust outbreaks, Famine Early Warning Systems Network, WRI’s Resource Watch platform, amongst others.

3 Climate Change and the Locust Plague Next discuss with your students how the current locust plague is potentially linked to climate change through two readings.

Reading 1: ‘A plague of locusts has descended on East Africa. Climate change may be to blame’ by Madeleine Stone for the National Geographic

and

Reading 2: ‘Are the 2019-20 locust swarms linked to climate change?’ by Daisy Dunne at CarbonBrief

Explain to your students how there was an unusually wet weather in East Africa over the last year or so. This included several cyclones which are rare in the region.

This wet weather and storminess is thought to have caused favorable conditions for the locust breeding. Further explain to the students how the wet weather and storminess is related to the Indian Ocean Dipole system. It has been hypothesized that climate change may be affecting the Indian Ocean Dipole.

Further discuss with your students how future locust outbreaks could become more common in a warmer world.

4 Optional: The Indian Ocean Dipole Optional: You may choose to emphasize the Indian Ocean Dipole, a climate system that impacts the weather from East Africa to West Australia using this short video by Prof Tracey Rogers, UNSW, Sydney.

This resource can be accessed here.

As a High School or introductory Undergraduate Environmental Sciences or Chemistry or Earth Sciences teacher, you can use this lesson plan to teach your students about Earth’s carbon cycle, its role in Earth’s climate, its irregularities due to anthropogenic activities, and its regulation by carbon sequestration.

In this lesson plan, students will learn about the various components and processes involved in Earth’s carbon cycle and its influence on Earth’s climate. This lesson plan will enable students to learn through interactive exercises how disturbances in the carbon cycle due to human activities have contributed towards global warming and climate change. Through this lesson plan your students will also learn about processes of carbon sequestration to regulate the disturbed carbon cycle and its role in climate mitigation and adaptation. Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Environmental Sciences or Chemistry or Earth Sciences.

Lesson plan developed with contribution from Gargi Khandelwal, St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai, India.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is the carbon cycle? Describe its components and processes.
  2. How does the carbon cycle influence Earth’s climate?
  3. Why has the carbon cycle changed in recent times?
  4. What is carbon sequestration and how does it regulate the carbon cycle?
  5. Explain the importance of carbon sequestration in climate mitigation.

Carbon Sequestration

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Environmental Sciences, Chemistry,

Earth Sciences

Topic(s) in Discipline Carbon Cycle, Carbon Sequestration,

Carbon Capture and Storage, Carbon Sources and Sinks

Climate Topic Climate and the Atmosphere, Climate and the Biosphere

Climate and the Hydrosphere, Climate and the Anthroposphere

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
60-90 min

Contents

Teaching Module (15-45 min) A teaching module to describe the components and explain the processes involved in the natural carbon cycle and its role in Earth’s climate.

This can be accessed here.

Infographic (5 min) An infographic to describe how the Earth’s carbon cycle is changing due to anthropogenic activities.

The infographic can be accessed here.

Quiz (~10 min) An interactive online quiz to test student understanding of the carbon cycle and its influence on Earth’s climate.

This can be accessed here.

Reading (30 min) A reading to describe natural carbon sources and sinks and the role of carbon sequestration by carbon capture and storage for climate mitigation.

This can be accessed here.

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

1 Introduce the carbon cycle and explain its role in Earth’s climate Use the teaching module, ‘The Carbon Cycle’ by University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) to describe what the carbon cycle is and how carbon is cycled through different parts of the Earth- atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere.

You may choose to use the ‘related pages and diagrams’ section to teach about the components and geochemical processes involved in the natural carbon cycle. Use the subsection ‘The Changing Carbon Cycle’ to explain how human activities are affecting the natural carbon cycle.

Finally, use the hands-on interactive activities in the ‘related resources’ section to elaborate on the role of the carbon cycle in Earth’s climate.

This can be accessed here.

2 Extend understanding of the changing carbon cycle Use the infographic, ‘Earth’s carbon cycle is off balance’ by NASA to explain how higher concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities are affecting the natural carbon cycle.

The infographic can be accessed here.

3 Enable discussion about how an off-balance carbon cycle contributes to climate change Use the interactive online quiz, ‘Carbon and the climate’ by NASA to test student understanding of the various components of the carbon cycle.

Encourage a discussion on their influence on Earth’s climate and how changes in them may contribute to climate change.

This can be accessed here.

4 Introduce carbon sequestration and describe its importance in climate mitigation Use the reading, ‘Carbon Sequestration’ by Noelle Eckley Selin, Associate Professor of Engineering Systems and Atmospheric Chemistry, MIT, to describe natural carbon sources and sinks. Explain how their balance is affected by anthropogenic activities with higher concentrations of carbon dioxide being added to the atmosphere.

Use the text to emphasize on the importance of the removal of this excess carbon dioxide from the atmosphere using technologies for carbon capture and storage, and carbon sequestration. Use the various embedded links to elaborate on these geoengineering processes. Finally, initiate a discussion on the significance of carbon sequestration in regulating the carbon cycle and thereby, enabling climate mitigation.

This can be accessed here.

As an Undergraduate Economics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching about implementation of environmental policies by measuring the value of abatement.

This lesson plan will enable you to teach your students about assessing the benefits of abatement by analyzing a survey to measure the willingness of people to pay for climate change mitigation. Economists often face the problem of placing a value on the abatement of environmental damage, to set against the cost of implementing abatement policies. Amongst the various methods used to estimate the value of abatement are contingent valuation and hedonic pricing. In this lesson plan, students will be able to learn about the challenges of placing a value on abatement through a classroom exercise in contingent valuation of the willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce carbon emissions to mitigate climate change.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Economics.

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Economics
Topic(s) in Discipline Value of Abatement, Contingent Valuation,

Hedonic Pricing, Willingness to Pay (WTP),

Cronbach’s Alpha

Climate Topic Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Energy, Economics and Climate Change

Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance

Location Global, Germany
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
90-120 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(30-45 min)

A teaching module to explain the measurement challenges of environmental policy, specifically the value of abatement.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(60-75 min)

A classroom/laboratory activity to measure the willingness to pay for climate change mitigation.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(20 min)

A research article that discusses the scope for cooperation in the climate commons.

This can be accessed here.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is the value of abatement in environmental policies?
  2. Why is it important to measure the value of abatement?
  3. How is the value of abatement measured?
  4. Why is estimating the value of abatement important for climate change mitigation?

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

1 Introduce the topic of value of abatement in environmental policies. 1.       Use the teaching module, ‘20.6: The measurement challenges of environmental policy’ by CORE to explain the need to measure the value of abatement in the implementation of environmental policy.

2.     This can be accessed here.

3.       Describe the different methods to measure the benefits of abatement- contingent valuation and hedonic pricing using the examples given in text. Explain the differences in these approaches and how these are used to measure how people value a change in their environment. Discuss how this is measured by the citizens’ willingness to pay (WTP) for the improved environment following the implementation of abatement policies. Enable student learning and evaluate understanding through the in-built exercises and questions.

4.       You may choose to navigate to the following sections (20.7-20.10) to explain how future technologies and lifestyles could affect people’s preferences, discuss why addressing climate change is so difficult, and why policy choices matter in implementing environmental policies.

2 Conduct a classroom/laboratory activity to measure the willingness to pay for climate change mitigation 1.       Use the project, ‘Measuring willingness to pay for climate change mitigation’ by CORE to conduct a classroom activity using data from an internet survey by the German government.

This project can be accessed here.

2.       The online survey was conducted to measure the citizens’ willingness to pay to reduce carbon emissions as a method of mitigating climate change. The data is made available in Excel, R, and Google Sheets formats.

3.       Direct your students to follow the instructions given in the text to analyze the data to answer the given set of questions.

4.       The activity will enable them to ‘construct indices to measure attitudes or opinions’, ‘use Cronbach’s alpha to assess indices for internal consistency’, ‘practice recoding and creating new variables’, and ‘compare survey measures of willingness to pay’.

3 Reading assignment to enable discussion on the willingness of individuals to contribute towards the common good in the face of climate change. 1.       Ask your students to read the research article, ‘Cooperation in the climate commons’ by Stefano Carattini et al., published by the Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy and the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.

This can be accessed here.

2.       Use the paper to initiate discussion on the willingness of individuals to reduce the demands on the environmental commons by adopting ‘green’ consumer behavior or by accepting expensive climate policies.

3.       Finally, use the review of cases and situations given in the text to discuss whether individuals are willing to cooperate towards climate change mitigation.

As an Undergraduate teacher of Psychology in the Social Sciences you can use this lesson plan to teach your students impacts of climate change on mental health and well-being.

This lesson plan provides an overview of several mental health consequences of global warming. These include stress and distress symptoms and clinical disorders like anxiety, depression, and even suicidality amongst others. It addresses how climate change and its impacts can affect the perceptions of everyday experiences and life of individuals and communities. And further highlights how mental health consequences of the impacts of global warming often are linked with other social and environmental stresses. These effects are direct and indirect, are complex, multi-level and can be acute or gradual. This lesson plan further emphasizes how the mental health and well-being consequences of climate change are a crucial in understanding how climate change impacts human health overall.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to teach aspects of Psychology in your Social Sciences classroom. This lesson plan can be used as a module in a Psychological Disorders or Mental Health courses or as a topic in Psychological Disorders or Therapy or Stress, Lifestyle, and Health sections in an Introductory Psychology course.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What are the mental health consequences of climate change?
  2. Discuss the multi-layered and interconnectedness of physical impacts, human systems and infrastructure impacts, and human health impacts of climate change.
  3. What are the connections between the mental, physical and community health aspects of human health and well-being?
  4. What are some direct and indirect mental health consequences of the impacts of global warming such as due to extreme weather events and natural disasters?
  5. What are some psychosocial mediators of climate change impacts?
  6. How do people adapt to and cope with the perceived threat of climate change?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline  Social Sciences, Psychology
Topic(s) in Discipline Psychological Disorders, Mental Health, Stress

Anxiety, Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

Suicide, Depression, Well-being

Climate Change and Mental Health, Climate and Society

Climate Topic Climate and the Anthroposphere
Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
90 min

Contents

Reading

(10 min)

Reading to introduce Psychosocial and Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change from the Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change. This report is titled ‘Psychology & Global Climate Change: Addressing a multifaceted phenomenon and set of challenges’.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(15 min)

A reading on food security and the countries that experienced potential food shortages due to the locust swarms of the World Resources Institute (WRI). This reading is titled ‘Which Countries Are Most Vulnerable to Locust Swarms?’ by Tina Huang.

This can be accessed here.

Video

(25 min)

A video titled ‘Mental Health Issues and Climate Change,’ by Prof Susan Clayton.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom Exercise

(30 min)

Classroom exercise from a teaching module titled ‘Climate Change: A Human Health Perspective. A Student Exploration of the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States’ by Dana Brown Haine and Stefani Dawn and hosted at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

This can be accessed here.

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

1 Introduction to Climate Change and Mental Health and Well-Being Introduce your students to the lesson plan by providing an overview of the Psychosocial and Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change. You may proceed with your own lecture material or can provide your students with a reading from the Report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change. This report is titled ‘Psychology & Global Climate Change: Addressing a multifaceted phenomenon and set of challenges’.

This resource can be accessed here.

Instruct your students to read Section 3: What Are the Psychosocial Impacts of Climate Change? Pages 42-49 and Section 4: How Do People Adapt to and Cope With the Perceived Threat and Unfolding Impacts of Climate Change? Pages 52-61.

You can use this resource to provide an overview to your students on the psychosocial and mental health impacts of climate change and its impacts. Discuss the issue with your students and emphasize the following main points from the readings.

1.       Psychosocial and Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change

2.       Social and Community impacts of climate change

3.       Psychosocial Mediators of Climate Change Impacts

4.       Global Climate Change in Context of Other Environmental Challenges

5.       Psychological Benefits Associated With Responding to Climate Change

6.       Relationship Between Psychosocial Impacts and Coping

7.       How Do People Adapt to and Cope With the Perceived Threat of Climate Change?

8.       Climate Change Threat and Environmental Impacts as Stressors

9.       Mediating Relations Between Stressors and Coping Responses

10.   Types of Coping Responses

11.   Interventions

2 Extend understanding Next, further your students understanding of the topic through a video lecture. This video lecture is titled ‘Mental Health Issues and Climate Change,’ by Prof Susan Clayton.

This resource can be accessed here.

In this video Prof Clayton discusses why it is important to discuss the health impacts of climate change, particularly the mental health and well-being aspects. Have your students watch this video lecture and conduct a classroom discussion. Emphasize the main points of the lecture in your discussion including the complexities of climate change and health impacts and how climate change can have direct or indirect effects on mental health and well- being and that these can be acute or gradual. Discuss the multi-layered and interconnectedness of physical impacts, human systems and infrastructure impacts, and human health impacts of climate change. Further stress on the connections between the mental, physical and community health of human health impacts of climate change. Note all the psychosocial and mental health consequences of global warming such as anxiety, stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (ptsd), grief, chronic psychological dysfunction, and depression. Also draw your students’ attention to how people are responsive to messages around health and so it can be an effective way to addressing the climate crisis.

3 Classroom Activity Next, conduct a classroom activity and discussion using a teaching module. This teaching module titled ‘Climate Change: A Human Health Perspective. A Student Exploration of the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States’ has been developed by Dana Brown Haine and Stefani Dawn and is hosted at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

This teaching module serves as an excellent resource for your students to learn about the impacts of climate change on human health. The topics in the module are Temperature-related Death and Illness; Air Quality Impacts; Extreme Events; Vector-Borne Diseases; Water-Related Illness; Food Safety, Nutrition, and Distribution; and Mental Health and Well-Being.

This resource can be accessed here.

Direct your students to Chapter 8: Mental Health and Well-Being. Have your students read the chapter and do the suggested exercises. Discuss with your students the pathways of Climate Drivers such as altered weather patterns, temperature changes; Exposure Pathways; Mental Health Outcomes such as anxiety, emotional stress, acute traumatic stress, post-traumatic stress disorder (ptsd), grief, chronic psychological dysfunction, depression, poor concentration, sleep disorders amongst others; and Vulnerable Populations like children, the elderly, women (especially pregnant and postpartum women), people with

pre-existing mental illness, economically disadvantaged and homeless and others.

As a High School or Undergraduate teacher in the Humanities, the Social Sciences, Earth Sciences, or Environmental Sciences, you can use this lesson plan to teach your students about climate change and global warming through Hip-Hop.

This lesson plan provides an introduction to Hip-Hop education and the importance of the use of popular and contemporary resources such as rap music to engage with the youth in the classroom. It focuses on the album ‘The Rap Guide To Climate Chaos’ by rapper and science communicator Baba Brinkman. This lesson plan provides a template on the use of contemporary and popular rap music on the science and politics of climate change so that your students can better engage with the climate crisis.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to teach Climate Science and Climate Change in your Humanities, Social Sciences, Earth Sciences, or Environmental Sciences classrooms. Teachers in the Humanities and the Social Sciences can use this lesson plan to teach topics such as Race Studies, Cultural Studies, Social Theory as per their syllabi while teachers in the Earth Sciences and Environmental Sciences can use the lesson plan to teach Climate Change to their students using a novel pedagogical approach.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is climate change? What are the causes of global warming?
  2. What are the impacts of climate change?
  3. What is the role of fossil fuel burning in the warming of the planet?
  4. How do the current energy policies contribute to an increase in the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere?
  5. Discuss global warming and the politics underlying the problem.
  6. Is individual agency enough to combat climate change?
  7. What political reforms can incorporate individual responses to climate change in conjunction with large scale reforms?
  8. What is Green Capitalism? What is Cap and Trade? How would you compare it with climate taxes?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Humanities, Social Sciences, Earth Sciences,

Environmental Sciences

Topic(s) in Discipline Climate Change, Global Warming,

Hip-Hop, Hip-Hop Education, Rap

Climate Topic Introduction to Climate Change

Policies, Politics, and Environmental Governance

Energy, Economics, and Climate Change

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
60-100 min

Contents

Reading

(15 min) and Video lecture (20 min)

A reading titled ‘The World IS Yours: A Brief History of Hip-Hop Education’ by Martha Diaz, Education Chair- Universal Hip-Hop Museum and Founder – Hip-Hop Education Center as an introduction to Hip-Hop education.

This can be accessed here. (Requires sign up for free access)

 

A video lecture of a panel discussion hosted by the Columbia University School of Professional Studies Community Scholars Lecture and Panel Discussion: ‘Hip-Hop Education Propelling and Preserving the Movement’ that provides an overview of Hip-Hop education and its importance.

This can be accessed here.

OPTIONAL:

Reading (15 min) OR Video Micro-Lectures (5-15 min)

A reading from the NASA Global Climate Change website that includes contains information about what is the scientific evidence for climate change, causes and impacts of climate change.

This can be accessed here.

OR

A set of 7 of short video micro-lectures (2-5 minutes in length) on climate change and global warming developed by the National Research Council, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

This can be accessed here.

Audio

(5 to 60 min)

Music album titled ‘The Rap Guide To Climate Chaos’ by rapper Baba Brinkman that contains 24 tracks (1 to 6 minutes in length)

This can be accessed here. (NOTE: May require purchase)

OR for free access at ‘Talks at Google’

Reading

(5 min)

A review of the album by Scientific American titled ‘Rapper's Lyrics about Climate Change Are Smart’.

This can be accessed here.

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

1 Introduction to Hip-Hop Education As an educator you may wish to read ‘The World IS Yours: A Brief History of Hip-Hop Education’ by Martha Diaz, Education Chair- Universal Hip-Hop Museum and Founder – Hip-Hop Education Center as an introduction to Hip-Hop education.

 

This resource can be accessed at:

https://www.academia.edu/1088920/The_World_IS_Yours_A_Brief_History_of_Hip_Hop_Education

(Note: Requires sign up for free access)

 

Further, you may wish to watch a panel discussion hosted by the Columbia University School of Professional Studies Community Scholars Lecture and Panel Discussion, ‘Hip-Hop Education: Propelling and Preserving the Movement’ that provides an overview of Hip-Hop education and its importance.

 

This resource can be accessed at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FKTqblvPrrY

 

Both these resources serve as excellent introductory resources towards how popular and contemporary material such as Hip-Hop and Rap music can be used as an effective pedagogical tool in the classroom. Rap music is an especially effective form of communicating and connecting with the youth. It is an extremely powerful tool that can make students understand the current climate crisis and an effective way to introduce the science of Earth’s climate, global warming, and its impacts.

2 OPTIONAL

Introduction to  Climate Change

Optional: You may wish to introduce the basics of climate change and global warming to your students using the following resources. These resources may be especially useful for students of the Humanities and Social Sciences.

 

Introduce to your students what is climate change and global warming using a reading from the NASA Global Climate Change website. This resource contains information about what is the scientific evidence for climate change, causes and impacts of climate change.

 

This resource can be accessed at:

https://climate.nasa.gov/causes/

 

You may choose to provide your students with further information about global climate change using a set of video micro-lectures, ‘Climate Change: Lines of Evidence’. This set of 7 of short video micro-lectures (2-5 minutes in length) have been developed by the National Research Council, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

 

They include:

1.       What is Climate? Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 1

2.       Is Earth Warming? Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 2

3.       Greenhouse Gases. Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 3

4.       Increased Emissions. Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 4

5.       How Much Warming? Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 5

6.       Solar Influence. Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 6

7.       Natural Cycles. Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 7

This video playlist can be accessed at:

https://www.youtube.com/playlist?annotation_id=annotation_709415&feature=iv&list=PL38EB9C0BC54A9EE2&src_vid=qEPVyrSWfQE

 

3 Audio; The Rap Guide To Climate Chaos by Baba Brinkman Instruct your students to listen to the album ‘The Rap Guide To Climate Chaos’ by Baba Brinkman prior to coming to the classroom if you are using the ‘Flipped Classroom’ style of pedagogy. Alternatively you may select and play particular tracks from the album during the lecture.

 

This album contains 24 tracks that explain the science and politics of climate change. The album can be found at https://music.bababrinkman.com/album/the-rap-guide-to-climate-chaos

 

Note that the album is available for purchase at the link above.

 

The tracks are available for free viewing on YouTube as part of Baba Brinkman’s performance for ‘Talks At Google’. This free resource can be found at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r1ZH6R3Idb4&t=759s

 

Tracks

1. Options 04:35

2. I.P.C.C. 03:59

3. Keep It Positive 01:23

4. Greenhouse (feat. Aaron Nazrul) 04:39

5. Party Don't Stop 01:05

6. Run the Joules 03:01

7. Mo Carbon Mo Problems 01:21

8. What's Beef (feat. Bill Nye) 05:27

9. Battle Lines 01:39

10. Lost in the Numbers 05:05

11. Bright Side 01:36

12. Fossil Fuel Ballers (feat. Aaron Nazrul) 04:45

13. Exxon Knew 01:23

14. Laudato Si 04:41

15. Yank the Plug 01:29

16. Make It Hot 05:57

17. Regulators 01:59

18. Carbon Bubble (feat. Mariella) 05:00

19. Stranded Assets 01:41

20. Ride Electric (feat. Fand) 04:34

21. This or That 01:23

22. Freedom Ain't Free 04:04

23. Stand Up 01:34

24. Makin' Waves (feat. Gaia's Eye) 05:54

 

Introduce the album to your class and discuss the following.

 

Overview: Baba Brinkman’s Rap Guide to Climate Chaos is a hip-hop album that aims to educate people on issues of climate change by staying true to the tradition of knowledge through rhymes in the genre. The album features 24 tracks that address climate change. In songs such as ‘IPCC’, he addresses the findings of the committee and even internal disagreements on projections. On songs such as ‘Greenhouse’, he takes the listener through a sonic journey of development including the greenhouse effect, predicted rise in global temperatures from Svante’s study and puts them alongside the findings of the IPCC and its accuracy. He critiques his own consumption and the paradox of being unable to individually contribute to reducing the impact of climate change without large scale policy reforms. Brinkman speaks extensively about cap and trade vs climate taxes, and the ecological debt that richer countries owe the marginalized. The album also focuses on Exxon’s failures and lies and how what they have done is committed a criminal offence.

 

Direct your students to note how Brinkman addresses problems of capitalism and proposes economic solutions including what can be categorized as green capitalism. Ask them to make note of his references to economic policies, individual hypocrisies, ecological debt, geophysics and political policies along with how theological institutions can address climate change.

 

 

As a High School or Undergraduate Economics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to teach about national/international environmental protection, negative externalities such as global warming, and market failure associated with climate change.

This lesson plan allows you to teach your students about the balance between economic progress and environmental protection. It includes resources to teach your students about the influence of the environment on economic output, the role of global warming as an externality, and climate change as a market failure. Further, this lesson plan includes an engaging classroom game/activity for students to participate in decision making exercises to evaluate the tradeoff between optimal economic growth and environmental protection for proxy organizations/nations. This will enable them to learn about and apply economic concepts such as green spending, green transfers, carbon tax, and carbon credits.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Economics.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is environmental protection in economics?
  2. What are negative externalities in economics?
  3. What are the negative externalities associated with climate change?
  4. How does market failure affect the environment?
  5. What type of market failure is climate change?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Economics
Topic(s) in Discipline Environmental Protection, Negative Externalities
Market Failure, Carbon Tax
Green Spending, Green Transfers
Carbon Credits
Climate Topic Energy, Economics, and Climate Change;
Location Global, USA
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
2 sessions, 50 – 60 min each

Contents

Teaching Module (35 min) A teaching module to introduce the concept of environmental protection in economics and the negative externalities associated with it.

This can be accessed here.

Reading (7 min) A reading to explain why economists consider climate change as a market failure.

This can be accessed here.

Reading (30 min): Homework Assignment A research article that evaluates greenhouse gas emissions induced global warming as an economic externality.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom/ Laboratory activity  (45-60 min) A classroom group activity/game to apply theoretical economic concepts in the context of climate change.

This can be accessed here.

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Session 1: Topic introduction and discussion

Use the teaching module, ‘Introduction to Environmental Protection and Negative Externalities’ by OpenStaxTM, Rice University, to introduce your students to the concept of environmental protection in economics and the negative externalities associated with it. Navigate to the different sections to teach about topics such as ‘The Economics of Pollution, ‘Market -Oriented Environmental Tools’, and ‘The Tradeoff between Economic Output and Environmental Protection’. Use the module to explain positive and negative externalities, equilibrium price and quantity, and market failure. Finally, discuss why global warming is an international economic externality.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 2: Develop the topic further

Use the short video clip of The Carbon Brief Interview, ‘Hoesung Lee on carbon pricing’, to reiterate the concept of global warming as a negative eternality. Dr Hoesung Lee is a Professor of Economics of Climate Change, Energy, and Sustainable Development, Korea University, and has served as vice-chair of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

This video clip can be accessed here.

Use the Nobel Laureate William D. Nordhaus’ speech at the Nobel Banquet, 10 December 2018, to emphasize on global warming as a negative externality on economic growth and its relevance for international economic policies.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 3: Discuss further

Use ‘The Guardian’ article, ‘Why do economists describe climate change as a market failure?’ by Alex Bowen, Simon Dietz, and Naomi Hicks, reproduced by The London School of Economics and Political Science and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, to discuss ‘greenhouse gas externality’ and climate change as a market failure.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 4: Extend understanding:

Homework Assignment

Close the first session by instructing your students to read the research article, ‘Global Warming and Economic Externalities’ by Armon Rezai et al., Economic Theory, 49(2):329-351, February 2012, to enable them to understand the role of global warming as an economic externality in economic equilibrium paths. Direct your students to use this reading to extract discussion points about the market failure of climate change and the required mitigation investment to correct it.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 5: Session 2: Apply understanding

Begin the second session by initiating a classroom discussion about climate change as a market failure (10-15 min). Encourage your students to discuss the various points extracted from the research article given as homework reading assignment to enable a broader understanding of the topic. Highlight the importance and requirement of mitigation investment to correct this market failure.

Use ‘The Economics Network’ classroom activity/game, ‘The Global Climate Change Game’ by James Copestake and Tom Ellum, University of Bath, to enable your students to apply the theoretical economic concepts discussed in this lesson plan. Use this engaging game to highlight key challenges in climate change negotiations between groups. Groups are required to assess their economic growth vis a vis contributing to global ‘green spending’ (public good benefit).

First, pass around copies of handouts of background information (link given in activity page) to enable understanding about global public goods, climate change and development finance. Highlight the role of negative externalities like global warming. Reiterate climate change as a market failure and thus, the need for mitigation and adaptation economic pathways. Use this reading to discuss the Kyoto Agreement, the Annex 1 and Annex 2 countries, and to explain concepts such as abatement curves, carbon debt, carbon tax, and Carbonaid.

Follow the instructions to conduct the activity. You may choose one or many of the suggestions for variations/extensions of this activity to enable students’ application of diverse theoretical economic concepts.

Finally, use the activity to initiate a discussion about your nation’s policies for environmental protection versus achieving optimal economic output.

This can be accessed here.

As an Undergraduate Economics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching climate mitigation environmental policies and specifically about the cap-and-trade system.

This lesson plan allows you to teach about economic policy responses to climate change. This lesson plan includes resources to explain various policy approaches to mitigating climate change such as carbon taxes and cap-and-trade systems, their differences, and advantages. It includes an engaging classroom activity to help your students to apply economical concepts such as price formation, market-based incentives, and transferable quotas/permits; and learn about carbon pricing, carbon taxes, and the cap-and-trade environmental policy.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Economics.

Carbon Pricing Dashboard by The World Bank

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Economics
Topic(s) in Discipline Climate Mitigation Environmental Policy,

Pricing, Market-based Incentives,

Transferable Quotas/Permits,

Cap-and-trade, Carbon Taxes, Carbon Pricing

Climate Topic Energy, Economics, and Climate Change;

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Ofline
Approximate
Time Required
60 – 90 min

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is a carbon pricing policy?
  2. What is the cap-and-trade system?
  3. Compare the carbon tax and the cap-and-trade policies. Which system do you support?
  4. The cap-and-trade policy would be effective in reducing worldwide emissions if all countries participate. Explain how this would affect the economic growth of your nation.
  5. Climate change is a global issue and the cap-and-trade policy would raise the cost of living especially affecting the poorer nations. How could governments address this issue through their economic policies?

Contents

Teaching Module (30-45 min) A teaching module to introduce and discuss the cap-and-trade environmental policy to mitigate climate change. This can be accessed here.
Classroom/ Laboratory activity  (30 – 45 min) An engaging classroom activity using a mobile app or a paper-based interaction, to enable a better understanding of the cap-and-trade system. This can be accessed here.
1 Topic introduction and discussion Use the teaching module, ‘Cap and trade environmental policies’ by the CORE Project, to introduce climate change mitigation policies such as carbon pricing. Use the module to teach about economic tools such as carbon taxes and the cap-and-trade policy.

 

Discuss the given examples of the cap-and-trade systems used in the past to highlight its benefits. Use the exercises given in text to enable your students to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the carbon tax and the cap-and-trade systems. Note that these exercises involve some extensive readings.

This can be accessed here.

2 Apply understanding Use the working paper, ‘For want of a chair: teaching price formation using a cap and trade game’ by Stefano Carattini et al., provided by the London School of Economics and Political Science, to engage your students in an in-class game to apply their understanding of economic concepts such as price formation, market-based incentives, and trading of quotas/permits. Use this game to highlight key tenets of environmental economics such as carbon pricing and carbon markets.

 

Use this activity to enable your students to play the role of policy makers and extend their understanding of carbon pricing policies such as carbon taxes and the cap-and-trade systems. Follow the instructions as outlined in the paper to engage the students in either a mobile app (ClassEx) or paper-based interaction. A video guide to using the ClassEx software can be found in the additional resources section of this lesson plan. Finally, encourage your students to discuss their understanding of how emissions trading systems work and how they could use this to assess their nation’s environmental economic policies.

This can be accessed here.

As an Undergraduate teacher in the Social Sciences, you can use this lesson plan to teach your students about the gender dimensions in the field of climate change.

Climate change is a defining factor of human development in recent times. It is not only a topic for scientific or technical discourse but important for its influence on social, economic, and political conditions with wide reaching effects on social justice and gender equality. Power structures, cultural and social constructs have been responsible for the gender norm- rights, roles, capacities, preferences-across the world and, often climate change impacts women more than it does men. A range of different factors such as age, ethnicity, and class define the nature of these differences. The discrepancy also exists in the participation of women in climate policy and action.

This lesson plan provides teaching resources to introduce gender, sex, and sexuality studies to your students. It focuses on understanding the gender dimensions of climate change in terms of its impacts, representation, and participation. The lesson plan includes resources for your students to better understand climate change and gender in agriculture, biodiversity, consumption, disasters, heath, waste, water, and migration amongst others.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to teach aspects of Gender Studies in your Social Sciences classroom. This lesson plan can be used as a module in a Gender Studies course or it can be used in the Gender section of an Introduction to Sociology course.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. How does climate change impact women?
  1. Why do women face limitations in participation in climate policy and responses?
  2. What are the gender dimensions of climate change and its impacts on
  • Agriculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Consumption
  • Disasters
  • Energy
  • Forests
  • Health
  • Migration
  • Population
  • Tourism
  • Transport
  • Waste
  • Water

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school
Discipline Social Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Gender, Women’s Studies, Justice

Human Rights, Women’s Rights

Climate Topic Climate and Society

Policies, Politics, and Environmental Governance

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
60 – 120 min

Contents

Reading

(10-30 min)

A reading to introduce Gender, Sex and Sexuality studies from OpenStax books. This chapter is part of the ‘Introduction to Sociology 2e” open access textbook.
Video

(18 min)

A video to introduce gender and climate change by Prof Petra Tschakert, Pennsylvania State University.

 

Readings

(30 -60 min)

A set of readings from GenderCC - Women for Climate Justice website that present gender dimensions of climate change in several sectors such as agriculture, biodiversity, consumption, disasters, heath, waste, water, and migration, amongst others.
1 Introduction to Gender Studies Introduce your students to the lesson plan by providing an overview of Gender, Sex, and Sexuality studies. You may proceed with your own lecture material or can provide your students with an introductory reading from OpenStax books. This open-access textbook titled ‘Introduction to Sociology 2e’ provides an excellent introduction to different topics in Sociology including Gender Studies. The book has been authored by several university faculty and includes instructor and student resources.

It can be accessed at:

https://openstax.org/details/books/introduction-sociology-2e

The section on Gender, Sex, and Sexuality can be accessed here.

Different aspects of the field are covered in this resource and include difference between sex and gender, gender identity, homophobia and heterosexism in society, transgender, transsexual, and homosexual identities, socialization on gender roles, stratification of gender in institutions, gender from the view of each sociological perspective, different attitudes associated with sex and sexuality, sexual inequality in various societies, theoretical perspectives on sex and sexuality, amongst others.

2 Introduction to Climate Change and Gender Next, introduce the topic of gender and climate change by using a video by Prof Petra Tschakert, Pennsylvania State University.

This resource can be accessed here.

In this video Prof Tschakert discusses the importance of gender and other dimensions of identity and inequality in the context of climate

change. Emphasize to your students, her remarks on how women are

differentially or more severely impacted by climate change but also how it is problematic that women are often portrayed as helpless, as victims of climate change with little knowledge and often no voice or agency.

3 Gender and Climate Change in different sectors Next, discuss with your students the gender dimensions of climate change in different sectors using the GenderCC - Women for Climate Justice website. This resource can be found  here.

It includes the following sections, each of which contains an overview of climate change and gender dimensions of the sector and links to case studies, guidebooks, and reports.

1. Agriculture, gender and climate change https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/agriculture.html

2. Biodiversity, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/biodiversity.html

3. Consumption, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/consumption.html

4. Disaster, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/disaster.html

5. Energy, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/energy.html

6. Forests, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/forests.html

7. Health, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/health.html

8. Migration, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/migration.html

9. Population, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/population.html

10. Tourism, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/population.html

11. Transport, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/transport.html

12. Waste, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/waste.html

13. Water, gender and climate change

https://www.gendercc.net/gender-climate/water.html

 

You may choose to discuss the gender dimensions of climate change through a group discussion activity and by assigning sectors to different groups of students. Finally, you may ask students to summarize the gender dimensions of climate change in terms of its impacts, representation, and participation.

As an Undergraduate teacher of Psychology in the Social Sciences you can use this lesson plan to teach your students aspects of behavioural science, explain why our brains are wired to ignore climate change, and discuss potential behavioural science solutions to the climate crisis.

This lesson plan provides teaching resources that would help your students learn about some cognitive and psychological factors that influence an individual’s response to climate change. It includes discussions on how the human brain responds most strongly to threats that are direct, visible, and immediate. As the impacts of climate change are rarely such, we tend to have psychological barriers that prevent meaningful sustained climate action for the long term. The lesson plan further includes resources to show how behavioural science could provide some solutions to the climate crisis.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to teach aspects of Behavioural Psychology in your Social Sciences classroom. This lesson plan can be used as a module in a Behavioral Psychology course or as a topic in Behavioural Psychology in an Introductory Psychology course.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is behavioral psychology?
  2. What cognitive and psychological factors influence responses to climate change?
  3. What is climate psychology?
  4. What are some psychological barriers that prevent sustained climate action?
  5. How can behavioral science provide solutions to the climate crisis?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school
Discipline Social Sciences, Psychology
Topic(s) in Discipline Behavioral Psychology
Climate Topic Climate and Society

Climate Change and the Anthroposphere

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
60 – 120 min

Contents

Video

(~33 min)

A video containing talks to introduce the science of behavior change hosted by The Royal Institution of Great Britain.

This can be accessed here.

Video lecture

(~22 min)

A video lecture on the cognition of climate change denial by Prof Stephan Lewandowsky from the University of Western Australia.

This can be accessed here.

Video lecture

(~55 min)

A video lecture titled ‘Why Our Brains are Wired to Ignore Climate Change’ by George Marshall at Talks at Google.

This can be accessed here.

1 Introduction to Science of Behavioural Change Introduce your students to the lesson plan by providing an overview of behavioural psychology and the science of behavioural change. You may proceed with your own lecture material or can provide your students with the video titled ‘The Science of Behaviour Change’. This resource contains three short talks hosted at the Royal Institution. Speakers include:

Prof Susan Michie - Professor of Health Psychology and Director of the Centre for Behaviour Change at UCL.

Nick Chater - researcher, author and editor for the journals Cognitive Science, Psychological Review, and Psychological Science.

Toby Park - Behavioural Insights Team

This resource can be accessed here.

You can use this resource to explain to your students how human beings often do not act in rational ways or do what is best for them. Solutions to critical problems such as climate change may require a behavioural change. This resource can be used to encourage your students to think about how people make decisions. Further, they can understand what interventions may encourage behavioural change that benefits individuals and society.

2 Cognition of Climate Change Denial Next, introduce your students to the topic of climate psychology. Use the video titled ‘Cognition of Climate Change Denial’ by Prof Stephan Lewandowsky from the University of Western Australia, hosted by the University of Sydney.

This resource can be accessed here.

In this video, Prof Lewandowsky discusses “some of the cognitive and psychological variables that determine people’s responses to climate science.” Emphasize to your students, his findings on people’s level of comprehension of climate data and climate science. Further discuss with your students, Prof Lewandowsky’s results on how ideology plays a significant role in whether an individual accepts or rejects climate science.

3 Climate Psychology: Why Our Brains Ignore Climate Change Next, discuss with your students what is climate psychology. Use the video titled ‘Why Our Brains are Wired to Ignore Climate Change’ by George Marshall at Talks at Google.

This resource can be accessed here.

In this video, George Marshall discusses how the human brain is wired to ignore the climate crisis even though it is such a critical problem. According to Marshall, the human brain responds most strongly to threats that are direct, visible, immediate, and caused by a defined “enemy”. As the impacts of climate change often tend to be less direct and immediate, we tend to have psychological barriers that prevent meaningful sustained climate action for the long term. Emphasize to your students, how Marshall addresses critical questions such as “What is the psychological mechanism that allows us to know something is true but act as if it is not? And how is it possible that when presented with overwhelming evidence, even the evidence of our own eyes, we can deliberately ignore something while being entirely aware that this is what we are doing?”

Summarize this lecture during your classroom discussion and emphasize the point that behavioural change can provide potential climate change solutions once we better understand human motivational drivers.

As an Undergraduate teacher in the Social Sciences or Environmental Studies, you can use this lesson plan to teach your students about how human induced global warming can have significant impacts on food and water security and could be a factor contributing to mass human migrations, lead to political instability, and even war.

This lesson plan examines how the most severe drought recorded (instrumentally) in Syria’s history from 2007-2010 was probably caused due to anthropogenically forced climate change. The drought is thought to have contributed to large scale human migration from farmlands to urban areas and may have been a significant factor in the political unrest and civil war in Syria.

This lesson plan provides teaching resources to introduce how climate change is stressing natural resources in different parts of the world and can lead to political instability, conflict and possibly even state collapse. It focuses on understanding whether the drought in Syria and mass human migrations played a role in the civil war there.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to teach aspects of Peace and Conflict Studies, International Relations, Natural Resource Management, Risk Assessment, Geopolitics and Security in your Social Sciences or Environmental Studies classrooms.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. How does climate change affect the internal security of a country?
  2. Did climate change cause the drought in Syria from 2007-2010?
  3. What role did food insecurity play in the mass human migration in Syria?
  4. Discuss whether climate change and the drought contributed to the civil war in Syria?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Social Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Conflict, Civil War, Geopolitics, Security

International Relations, Risk Assessment

Human Migration, Drought

Climate Topic Climate and Society

Climate Change and Food Security

Disasters and Hazards

Policies, Politics, and Environmental Governance

Location Syria
Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
 60-120 min

Contents

Reading

(10 min)

A reading on climate change caused stress on natural resources and its effect on state fragility. This reading is titled ‘Climate Change, the Erosion of State Sovereignty, and World Order’ by Francesco Femia and Caitlin E. Werrell.

This can be accessed here.

Video

(5 min)

A video on climate change as a catalyst for crisis from the Yale Climate Communications series titled ‘Drought, Water, War, and Climate Change’.

This can be accessed here.

Video (20 min) A video from the Showtime series ‘Years of Living Dangerously’ – a documentary television series on global warming. This video titled ‘Dry Season’ includes segments on droughts in the Southwest United States, religion and climate change, deforestation in Indonesia, and how drought contributed to the civil war in Syria. The segment on the war in Syria is reported by Thomas Friedman of the New York Times.

This can be accessed here.

Readings (30-60 min) A set of readings on Climate Change and the civil war in Syria.

Reading 1: A journal article titled ‘Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought’ by Colin P. Kelley, Shahrzad Mohtadi, Mark A. Cane, Richard Seager, and Yochanan Kushnir in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). This article drew linkages between climate change, the drought, mass migration, political instability, and civil war in Syria.

Reading 2: A short review article titled ‘Is Climate Change Behind the Syrian Civil War?’ by Prof Dagomar Degroot at Historical Climatology website.

Optional: Reading 3: A journal article that did not find significant linkages between climate change and the Syrian civil war titled ‘Climate change and the Syrian civil war revisited’ by Jan Selby, Omar S. Dahib, Christiane Fröhlich, Mike Hulme in Political Geography

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Introduction

Introduce your students to the lesson plan by discussing how climate change can stress the natural resources of several countries and how this can lead to political instability. Use the reading is titled ‘Climate Change, the Erosion of State Sovereignty, and World Order’ by Francesco Femia and Caitlin E. Werrell from The Center for Climate and Security: Exploring The Security Risks of Climate Change.

This resource is available here.

Use the reading to emphasize how human-induced global warming can have significant impacts on food and water security and can potentially cause mass human migrations, political instability, internal conflict, and, potentially, even civil wars. Discuss with your students the section titled ‘The Six Erosions of State Sovereignty’, especially the ‘Catch-22 States’ and ‘Brittle States’ in which the 2007-2010 drought of Syria led to massive crop failure, mass human migration and “accelerated Syria’s transition from relative stability to being one of the most conflict-ridden states in the world.”

 

Step 2: Discuss Climate Change, The Drought and Civil War in Syria

Use two videos to explain to your students the linkages between global warming and changes in weather patterns leading to the most severe drought instrumentally recorded in the history of Syria. Explore whether the drought contributed to civil and political unrest in Syria.

Your students may first watch a short video (5 min) on climate change as a catalyst for the crisis from the Yale Climate Communications series titled ‘Drought, Water, War, and Climate Change’ available  here..

Next, ask your students to watch a video from the Showtime series ‘Years of Living Dangerously’ – a documentary television series on global warming. This video titled ‘Dry Season’ includes segments on droughts in the Southwest United States (reported by Don Cheadle), religion and climate change (reported by Katharine Hayhoe), deforestation in Indonesia (reported by Harrison Ford), and how drought may have contributed to the civil war in Syria. You may choose to have your students watch just the sections pertaining to Syria which are interspersed in the video. The segment on the war in Syria is reported by Thomas Friedman of the New York Times.

This resource can be accessed here.

 

Step 3: Extend Understanding-Climate Change, The Drought and Civil War in Syria

Next, provide your students with a journal article titled ‘Climate change in the Fertile Crescent and implications of the recent Syrian drought’ by Colin P. Kelley, Shahrzad Mohtadi, Mark A. Cane, Richard Seager, and Yochanan Kushnir in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

This resource can be accessed  here.

 

This article from 2015 first drew linkages between climate change, the drought, mass migration, political instability, and civil war in Syria. The authors separated the natural variability of Syrian climate from anthropogenically induced climate change and concluded that warming and drying weather trend was caused due to human influence.

Ask your students to summarize and discuss the main findings of this research article. You may choose to provide them with a short and simpler review article titled ‘Is Climate Change Behind the Syrian Civil War?’ by Dr Dagomar Degroot at Historical Climatology website to further their understanding.

This resource is available here.

 

Optional:

The work of Kelley et al. (2015) is often cited as an example of climate change contributing to civil war. However there has been some debate around their findings. A recent journal article from 2017 titled ‘Climate change and the Syrian civil war revisited’ by Jan Selby, Omar S. Dahib, Christiane Fröhlich, Mike Hulme in Political Geography challenged the findings of Kelley et al. (2015). The authors report that they did not find significant linkages between climate change and the Syrian civil war.

This can be accessed here.

You may choose to ask your students to read both articles and to discuss and debate whether there is scientific evidence for linking the drought in Syria from 2007 to 2010 with anthropogenically forced global warming. And if the drought caused large scale human migration, led to political unrest and finally the civil war. You may emphasize to your students the scientific process which often involves divergent views.

 

 

As a High School or Undergraduate Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, or Geography teacher, you can use this lesson plan to teach your students about climate change and global warming and specifically the impacts of climate change in South Africa.

This lesson plan provides an introduction to climate change, causes and impacts of climate change globally, climate change risk profile for South Africa that includes climate impacts on major sectors of the country such as agriculture, water resources, human health, ecosystems, energy, infrastructure, and disasters. This lesson plan also includes the current and future health risks in South Africa due to climate change.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to teach Climate Science and Climate Change in your Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, and Geography classrooms.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is climate change? What are the causes of global warming?
  2. What are the global impacts of climate change?
  3. What are the impacts of climate change in South Africa?
  4. How will increased temperatures impact South Africa?
  5. How will changing weather patterns including changes in precipitation, storms, droughts impact South Africa in the future?
  6. What are the current and future health risks due to climate change?
  7. What risks does climate change pose to human health in South Africa with respect to malaria, dengue fever, and undernutrition?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school
Discipline Earth Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Geography

Topic(s) in Discipline Climate Change, Global Warming

Climate Change Risk Profile of South Africa

Health Impacts of Climate Change

Climate Topic Introduction to Climate Change

Climate Variability Record

Climate and Health

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
60 – 75 min

Contents

Reading (15 min) and Video Micro-Lectures

(5-15 min)

A reading from the NASA Global Climate Change website that includes contains information about what is the scientific evidence for climate change, causes and impacts of climate change.

This can be accessed here.

Optional:  A set of 7 of short video micro-lectures (2-5 minutes in length) on climate change and global warming developed by the National Research Council, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

This can be accessed here.

Readings

(30 min)

A set of two readings by Climatelinks: A Global Knowledge Portal for Climate and Development Practitioners, USAID, to explain climate change in South Africa.

This can be accessed at:

Reading 1 ; Reading 2

Reading

(15 min)

A reading by the World Health Organization on how climate change can impact human health in South Africa.

This can be accessed here.

1 Introduction to the Climate Change Introduce to your students what is climate change and global warming using a reading from the NASA Global Climate Change website. This resource contains information about what is the scientific evidence for climate change, causes and impacts of climate change.

This resource can be accessed here.

 Optional: You may choose to provide your students with further information about global climate change using a set of video micro-lectures. This set of 7 of short video micro-lectures (2-5 minutes in length) have been developed by the National Research Council, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

They include:

  1.        What is Climate? Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 1
  2.        Is Earth Warming? Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 2
  3.        Greenhouse Gases. Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 3
  4.        Increased Emissions. Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 4
  5.        How Much Warming? Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 5
  6.        Solar Influence. Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 6
  7.        Natural Cycles. Climate Change, Lines of Evidence Chapter 7

This video playlist can be accessed here.

2 Readings; Climate Change in South Africa Use a set of two readings by Climatelinks: A Global Knowledge Portal for Climate and Development Practitioners, USAID, to explain climate change in South Africa to your students.

A.     First, use the factsheet Climate Change Risk Profile: Southern Africa which is a factsheet on climate change risk profiles for the southern part of the African continent. This factsheet (9 pages) includes the climate summary, historical and future climate, impacts on major sectors such as agriculture, water resources, human health, ecosystems, energy, infrastructure, and disasters, for Southern Africa including the country of South Africa.

 

This resource can be accessed here.

 

B.     Next, use the factsheet Climate Change Information Factsheet: South Africa to emphasize the climate impacts and vulnerabilities for South Africa. This factsheet (4 pages) includes current and future temperature projections, precipitation and flooding, drought, sea level rise and storm surge, and winds and storms.

This resource can be accessed here.

3 Reading: Climate Change and Human Health Impacts in South Africa Use a reading by the World Health Organization (WHO) to stress to your students how climate change can impact human health in South Africa. This factsheet (8 pages) titled Climate Change and Health: Country Profile: South Africa includes information on climate hazard projections for South Africa and current and future health risks of climate change in South Africa. You could use this factsheet to help your students better understand what risks does climate change pose to human health in South Africa with respect to malaria, dengue fever, and undernutrition.

This resource can be accessed here.

 

As a Middle or High School Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, or Geography teacher, you can use this lesson plan to teach the Earth’s climate system and help your students understand different aspects of Earth’s climate using simulations. This lesson plan is based on the web-based tool ‘Earth-Like’ developed at the Earth-Life Science Institute, Japan.

This lesson plan introduces Earth’s climate system, an overview of the Earth-Like simulator, and provides a guided exercise that uses the simulator to help your students understand what are the main factors that determine the climate of planet Earth.

There are several factors that impact the surface temperature and the climate of the planet. These include the role of the sun and solar flux incident on the planet, the roles of the atmosphere and its greenhouse effect, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, the biosphere, the cryosphere, the anthroposphere, and their interactions on a variety of spatial and temporal scales. This lesson plan demonstrates the use of the Earth-Like simulation to explain select aspects of the Earth’s climate system.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to teach Climate Science and Climate Change in your Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences, and Geography classrooms. This lesson plan is particularly effective to use in a flipped classroom and as a blended learning educational resource.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What would Earth’s average surface temperature be if the sun was a Red Dwarf (0.002 L) like Proxima Centauri? If it was a Yellow-White Dwarf (5 L)?
  2. What role does the incoming solar flux play in determining the average surface temperature of planet Earth?
  3. What do you expect the average surface temperature of the Earth to be if the rate of volcanism increases?
  4. What would Earth’s climate be like if it was much closer to the Sun?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Middle School
Discipline Earth Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Geography

Topic(s) in Discipline Earth’s Climate System, Climate Change
Climate Topic Planetary Climate
Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
50 min

Contents

Video Lecture (15 min) A video micro-lecture produced by the University of British Columbia that explains the Earth’s climate system and what determines the climate of planet Earth.

This can be accessed here.

Introduction to Simulator ‘Earth-Like’

(10 min)

The Earth-Like simulator developed at the Earth-Life Science Institute, Japan to understand Earth’s climate system

This can be accessed here.

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(25 min)

A classroom/ laboratory activity that uses the Earth-Like simulator to guide learning about Earth’s climate system and the role that different factors play in determining Earth’s climate and changes to it.
1 Introduction to the Earth’s Climate System Introduce the Earth’s climate system to your students through the video lecture ‘Earth’s Climate System’ developed by the University of British Columbia as part of the course titled ‘Climate Literacy: Navigating Climate Change Conversations’.

 

Emphasize the following topics from the video lecture: What determines the climate of planet Earth, specifically the significant role of the sun and the solar energy flux received on the planet, and the roles of the atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere.

This resource can be accessed here.

2 Conduct a classroom/ laboratory activity Introduce your students to the Earth-Like simulator developed at the Earth-Life Science Institute, Japan. This simulator was developed as a project from the ELSI Origins Network Planetary Diversity Workshop.

The Earth-Like simulator can be accessed here.

The Earth-Like is a simulator allows you to render new planets and examine the average surface temperature and the climate of the planet by varying the most significant contributors to the Earth’s climate system. The simulator has two options: A classic toolkit and an advanced toolkit. The simulator includes the following:

 

Classic Toolkit

1. Fraction of the planet's surface covered by land

2. The rate of volcanism

3. Position within Habitable zone

 

Advanced Toolkit

1. Fraction of the planet's surface covered by land

2. The rate of volcanism

3. The type of sun

4. The distance from the sun

 

Your students can choose either toolkit to evaluate the roles of each of the factors listed above in determining the climate of the planet. The simulator can be used by changing the values of these factors and rendering a new planet. The results are given in terms of the average surface of the temperature of the new planet and are compared with that of our current-day Earth.

 

The Earth-Like website also includes a brief description of climate science and specifically the role of land fraction cover with an emphasis on the weathering reaction, rate of volcanic degassing, solar insolation levels, the planetary thermostat and the carbon cycle. A description of the model and the mathematics behind it is also provided.

 

Give your students an assignment and ask them to answer the following questions. At the end of each question, emphasize to your students how varying each factor changes the average surface temperature of the planet. This will allow them to better understand the role of these factors in determining planet Earth’s climate. The solutions to the assignment are provided as a separate downloadable document.

Download assignment

As an Undergraduate Earth Sciences, Mathematics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you teach how to program in Python and build a computational model of the Earth’s climate system.

Ice Albedo Effect

This lesson plan includes discussions, activities, and a detailed guide of how to create a model to understand the role of the cryosphere in determining the climate of the planet and specifically the Ice Albedo Feedback.

This lesson plan focuses on important questions such as why did the Ice Ages occur? Or, how did the “Snowball Earth” – a time when the entire planet was covered in ice, come to occur? And what are the driving forces behind these phenomena? The resources of this lesson plan include material to help understand the dominant role of the Sun and its energy on the climate of the planet and how climate on Earth responds to the changes in the Solar Constant. It focuses on the ice-albedo feedback cycle, a phenomenon that influences this response strongly and allows for a better understanding of some of the mechanisms that explain Ice Ages and Snowball Earth like climate catastrophes.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to teach a climate science topic in Earth Sciences, Mathematics, and Computer Sciences.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is “Snowball Earth”?
  2. What is the role of the Sun in determining the average surface temperature of planet Earth?
  3. What is the Ice Albedo Feedback?
  4. Why do Ice Ages occur?
  5. How do you write a simple computational model in Python?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school
Discipline Earth Sciences, Mathematics, Computer Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Ice Albedo Feedback, Ice Ages, Snowball Earth,

Milankovitch Cycles, Solar Constant,

Computational Modelling with Python

Climate Topic Climate and the Cryosphere,

Long term Cycles and Feedback Mechanisms,

Climate Variability Record, Planetary Climate

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
1-2 hours

Contents

Video micro-lectures

(6 min)

Two video micro-lectures that introduce concepts of “Snowball Earth” and the Ice Albedo Feedback by National Geographic and by Prof David Archer, The University of Chicago, respectively.

These can be accessed at:

Snowball Earth from National Geographic

The Ice Albedo Feedback Prof David Archer

Teaching Module

(35 min)

A set of tutorials to learn basic syntax in Python: ‘Introduction to Python: Beginners Guide and Tutorials’
Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(60 min)

A programming activity with a detailed step-by-step guide to building the Ice Albedo feedback model using Python.

These can be accessed as separate downloadable documents.

1 Introduction to the Lesson Plan A.     Introduce this lesson plan to your students by asking some important leading and deep questions such as:

·       Why do Ice Ages occur?

·       Why do they occur periodically?

·       Why did we have climate catastrophes such as the “Snowball Earth” when the entire planet was covered with ice?

·       How do we get out of such catastrophic events?

·       How resilient is life to have survived these climate catastrophes?

 

You may begin your lesson with providing the following background information to your students.

 

o   While there have been only two known Snowball Earth events in the entire history of the planet, Ice Ages are cyclic phenomena occurring roughly every 100,000 years. The Sun is the dominant source of energy on Earth and to the first degree, the Earth’s climate is determined by the energy we receive from the Sun. In terms of the incident solar power per unit area, called the Solar Constant, a higher solar constant would correspond to a hotter Earth while a lower one to lower temperatures.

o   In this lesson plan we focus on changes in the Solar Constant on long time scales of tens of thousands of years to understand its role in determining Earth’s climate. This kind of change is largely driven by Earth’s orbital parameters; its eccentricity, obliquity, and precession - the Milankovitch cycles. We then focus on the question of precisely how climate on Earth responds to the changes in the Solar Constant. The ice-albedo feedback cycle influences this response strongly.

o   Albedo is the reflectivity of a planet. A higher albedo or greater reflectivity of the planet surface leads to a decrease in the surface temperatures. As surface temperatures decrease and more ice is formed the albedo of the planet further increases due to ice being more reflective and consequently this leads to further decrease in surface temperatures. This is an example of a positive feedback and is known as the Ice Albedo feedback. In this lesson plan we study how equilibrium is achieved in such a cycle, analyze the process with different solar constants, and build an overall understanding of some of the mechanisms to understand Ice Ages.

 

We will understand these important concepts through a hands-on activity of creating an iterative ice albedo feedback model in Python.

 

B.     Play a short video ‘Snowball Earth’ by National Geographic as a basic introduction of what is Snowball Earth and emphasize that such climate catastrophes have occurred in Earth’s past.

 

This resource can be accessed at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mX3pHD7NH58

 

C.     Also introduce your students to the Ice Albedo feedback through a video micro-lecture by Prof David Archer, The University of Chicago as part of an online course on Global Warming Science.

 

This resource can be accessed at:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VXCTvoWGyVM

2 Prepare for Python Programming; By installing Jupyter Notebook Ask your students to install a Python programming environment on their computers. For beginners, we recommend using Jupyter Notebooks. This environment allows you to access tutorials and a programming space where students can simultaneously read instructions and try their hands at programming. To access Jupyter Notebooks, install the ‘Anaconda-Navigator’ from the following link. Once it is successfully installed on your computer, navigate to the homepage of the software, and click on ‘Install’ in the ‘Jupyter Notebook’ tab. Once installed, launch the notebook- the ‘Jupyter notebook Homepage’ will open as a webpage. Open a new ‘Python 3’ file to begin coding.

 

The Anaconda-Navigator installer can be accessed at:

https://www.anaconda.com/products/individual

 

3 Introduction to Programming with Python Use the link to the Python tutorial database to teach the basics of Python programming such as printing text, defining variables, simple arithmetic operations, import and use of the ‘numpy’ and ‘matplotlib’ libraries, defining arrays and lists, using indices with arrays and lists, and loops (specifically ‘for’ loops). These introductory skills will be required for the ensuing classroom/laboratory activity.

 

The Python tutorial database can be accessed at:

https://wiki.python.org/moin/BeginnersGuide/Programmers

 

4 Classroom/Laboratory Activity Have your students begin with the classroom activity of developing the Ice-Albedo Feedback Model using Python. This exercise has been adopted from Prof David Archer's course titled “Global Warming II: Create your own models in python”, available on Coursera at https://www.coursera.org/learn/global-warming-model

 

A detailed step-by-step guide for this activity is provided here:

 

In pdf format: https://tropicsu.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/Tutorial-Ice-Albedo-Feedback-Model.pdf

 

Share the instruction manual for the exercise with each student. The manual walks you through the entire process of developing the model on Python. Download the notebook using the links provided. To open it, launch Jupyter notebook from the Anaconda-Navigator. From the homepage, go to ‘downloads’ folder from the directory and search for the manual. If you want the students to work their way through the exercise themselves, you may avoid sharing the manual with them. Instead, use it to motivate them in the right direction with hints.

 

Quiz : “Carbon and the climate”
Video: Who Is Responsible For Climate Change? Who Needs To Fix It?

As an Undergraduate Economics or Social Sciences teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching social theories in Marxism.

Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)

This lesson plan will allow you to introduce Marxism in social theory taught across Sociology, Political Science, Economics, and other disciplines. It includes teaching the socio-economic ideologies presented in Das Kapital which can serve as a prelude to discussions on contemporary social problems. By describing the foundations of Marx’s theory of Capitalism and its historical development, you can use this lesson plan to explain capitalism’s influence on climate change. This lesson plan includes resources to teach your students about carbon markets and to use Marxist concepts to evaluate the effect of carbon markets on present day capitalism.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Economics or Social Sciences.

Want to know about how to contribute a Lesson Plan? CONTACT US

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What are Marx’s main tenets about Capitalism?
  2. What are Marx’s fundamental problems with Capitalism?
  3. What were Marx’s ideas to reform Capitalism?
  4. Does Marxist theory support carbon markets and the greening of Capitalism?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Economics, Social Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Marxist Theory of Capitalism, Das Kapital,

Theory of Value, Working Class, Labor Time,

Historical Materialism, Greening Capitalism, Climate Capitalism

Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change;

Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
120 min

Contents

Readings

(20 min)

A news article to introduce Karl Marx’s Das Kapital and his theory of Capitalism.

This can be accessed here.

A reading to discuss Marx’s life and works, and the economic and philosophical ideologies proposed by him.

This can be accessed here.

Video lecture

(45 min)

A video lecture to explain the basis of Marx’s Capitalist Theory. This is a part of a series of lectures about Marxist Theories.

This can be accessed here.

Video 

(~12 min)

A video interview to discuss the historical evolution of Marx’s Capitalist Theory in the context of climate change.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(45 min)

A research article about a Marxist assessment of carbon markets and their role in the evolution of global capitalism.

This can be accessed here.

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion 

  1. Use the brief write-up, ‘What is Marx’s Das Kapital?’ by Brian Wheeler for BBC, to introduce the topic of Marxist Theory of Capitalism.
  2. Use the reading to describe the socio-political circumstances of when the Das Kapital was written, the essential ideas promulgated by it, and how the historical context of the Marxist Theory of Capitalism has evolved over time.

This reading can be accessed here.

  1. Use the reading, ‘Karl Marx’ by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, to describe the socio-political contexts in Karl Marx’s biography and to initiate a discussion about his written works.
  2. Use the sub-sections to summarize the Marxist ideologies in his early writings, about economics, the theory of history, and the morality in his works.
  3. Finally, encourage your students to debate the juxtaposition of his ideas about capitalism and communism.

This reading can be accessed here.

 

Step 2: Extend understanding

  1. Use the video lecture, ‘Marx’s Theory of Capitalism’ by Prof Shapiro, Yale University, to explain the basis of Marx’s theory of Capitalism around what defines value and how wealth can be created.
  2. Explain how this can be viewed from both a micro and macro socio-economic standpoint.
  3. Use the video lecture to describe Marx’s definition of a working class and modes of production.
  4. Explain the differences in class-in-itself and class-for-itself in capitalist society.
  5. Use the lecture to elaborate on the use of both human and non-human resources, and necessary and surplus labor time, in capitalism.
  6. Note: This video lecture is the first of two lectures that describe Marx’s ideologies of Capitalism and Historical Materialism. This lecture is available to download in audio and video formats, has downloadable lecture notes and suggestions for assignments to enhance learning.

This video lecture is available here.

 

Step 3: Discuss further

  1. Use the video interview, ‘Marxist theory: Relevant to climate change today?’ by Prof Graham Murdock, Loughborough University, UK, to discuss the impact of capitalism on climate change.
  2. Draw attention to Marx’s commentary on the breakdown of the relationship of humans with nature due the industrialization of agricultural practices.
  3. Further, discuss how Marx’s analysis on ecology could also provide the solutions to problems in the context of climate change.

This video can be accessed here.

 

Step 4: Assignment and Classroom Discussion

  1. Carbon markets are important for the global efforts to address climate change. Use the paper ‘Greening Capitalism? A Marxist Critique of Carbon Markets’ by Steffen Böhm et al, Organization Studies (2012) to evaluate carbon markets.
  2. Begin by explaining that the paper reviews four Marxist concepts- metabolic rift; capitalism as world ecology; uneven development and accumulation through dispossession; and sub-imperialism for this analyzing carbon markets.
  3. Instruct your students to read the research paper and summarize it in an in-class discussion.
  4. Use the article’s references to introduce the concept of ‘climate capitalism’.
  5. Finally, initiate a debate on how carbon markets could affect capitalist dynamics to achieve a sustainable global economy.

This research paper is made available by the author here.

As a high school or introductory undergraduate Chemistry or Environmental Sciences teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching the basics of electrochemistry, electrolysis and the application of electrolysis in fuel cells as an alternative source of clean energy.

This lesson plan includes resources to teach about oxidation states, redox reactions, half-cell, cell potentials, electrolysis, and electrolytic cells. It includes a hands-on laboratory activity to teach your students about the application of electrolytic cells for energy generation from fuel cells. These fuel cells offer an alternative to fossil-fuel based energy production which is the main contributor to global warming and climate change.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Chemistry or Environmental Sciences.

Want to know about how to contribute a Lesson Plan? CONTACT US

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What are redox reactions?
  2. What is electrolysis? Give examples of electrolytic reactions.
  3. What are the differences in voltaic/galvanic and electrolytic cells?
  4. Describe the functioning of a fuel cell.
  5. What is the importance of fuel cell technology in the context of climate change?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Introductory Undergraduate
Discipline Chemistry, Environmental Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Electrochemistry, Reduction and Oxidation (Redox) Chemical Reactions,

Half-cells, Cell Potentials, Electrolysis, Voltaic/Galvanic Cells,

Electrolytic Cells, Fuel Cells

Climate Topic Climate and the Atmosphere,

Climate and the Anthroposphere,

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
2-4 sessions, 40 – 60 min each

Contents

Teaching Module

(25 min)

A teaching module to teach the basics of electrochemistry, oxidation states, redox reactions, half-cells, and cell potentials.

This can be accessed here.

Teaching Module

(15 min)

A teaching module to teach about electrolysis, electrolytic cells, and their applications.

This can be accessed here.

Reading (10 min) A case study to introduce fuel cells, how they work, and the types of fuel cells in use currently.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom/ Laboratory Activity

(3 sessions, 40-60 min each)

A set of hands on laboratory activities to introduce fuel cells and to demonstrate how they are built and can be used to generate energy efficiently.

These can be accessed at:

Activity 1

Activity 2

Activity 3

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

 

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion 

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘Redox reactions and electrochemistry’ by Khan Academy to teach your students the basics of electrochemistry, oxidation states, oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, half-cells, cell potentials, galvanic/voltaic cells, and electrolysis.
  2. Use the in-built examples and exercises to extend your students’ understanding of various electrochemistry concepts.
  3. Emphasize on the process of electrolysis and electrolytic cells.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 2: Extend understanding

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘Electrolysis I’ by LibreTextsTM, UC Davis, to teach about electrolysis and to describe it quantitatively.
  2. Use the tool to teach how electrolytic cells are constructed and to describe several electrolytic reactions.
  3. Elaborate upon the differences between Voltaic/Galvanic and Electrolytic Cells.
  4. Use the in-built examples and exercises to assess students’ understanding of electrolytic reactions.
  5. Explain how an electrolysis reaction could be evaluated quantitatively.
  6. Finally, discuss how electrolytic reactions could be used for commercial purposes such as electroplating and in fuel cell technology.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 3: Discuss further

  1. Use the case study, ‘Fuel Cells’ by LibreTextsTM, UC Davis, to introduce fuel cells, describe how they work, and discuss the different types of fuel cells.
  2. Use the tool to describe the hydrogen fuel cell that is used to generate electricity, water, and heat and is used to power vehicles and even spacecraft.
  3. With no byproduct of carbon emissions, discuss how this is a cleaner alternative to fossil fuel-based energy production.
  4. Describe the other fuel cell types and discuss the benefits and limitations of fuel cells.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 4: Apply understanding with a set of hands on laboratory exercises

Use a set of 3 hands on laboratory exercises- ‘Intro to Fuel Cells’, ‘Build a Fuel Cell’, and ‘Fuel Cell Characterization’ by Michael Fitzgerald, Cornell Center for Materials Research, to enable your students to apply their understanding of the various electrochemistry concepts discussed in this lesson plan. You may choose to conduct all or few of these activities.

Note: All the laboratory exercises are structured as complete teaching modules- with learning objectives, background information, step-by-step instructions for conducting the activity, evaluation exercises, and discussion points- and are available for downloading.

These can be accessed at:

  1. Introduction to Fuel Cells
  2. Build a Fuel Cell https://www.ccmr.cornell.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2015/11/build-a-fuel-cell.pdf
  3. Fuel Cell Characterization

As a high school or introductory undergraduate Chemistry or Environmental Sciences teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching the basics of electrochemistry and how the application of electrolysis can potentially reduce the global carbon dioxide emissions.

This lesson plan includes an interactive classroom activity to teach about electrochemical reactions, electrolysis, and electrolytic cells. It also includes resources to explain to your students how electrolysis may be used to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions from large-scale processes such as world-wide cement production. Global cement production contributes significantly to increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide resulting in global warming and climate change.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Chemistry or Environmental Sciences.

This is a Teacher-contributed lesson plan by Dr Richa Arora (Shivaji College) and Dr Upasana Issar (Kalindi College), University of Delhi, India.

Want to know more about how to contribute a Lesson Plan? CONTACT US

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. Give examples to illustrate the use of electrochemistry in daily life.
  2. What are the differences in voltaic and electrolytic cells?
  3. Explain how electrolysis may be used in large scale cement production to reduce global carbon dioxide emissions.
  4. Describe some possible applications of electrochemical processes to reduce carbon emissions.

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Introductory Undergraduate
Discipline Chemistry, Environmental Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Electrochemistry, Half-cells, Salt Bridge,

Reduction and Oxidation (Redox) Chemical Reactions,

Electrolysis, Electrolytic Cells

Climate Topic Climate and the Atmosphere,

Climate and the Anthroposphere,

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
70 – 100 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(30 min)

A teaching module to teach the basics of electrochemistry, electrochemical reactions, electrolysis, electrolytic cells, and the applications of electrolysis.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(30 min)

An interactive simulation to demonstrate and experiment with the process of electrolysis in electrolytic cells.

This can be accessed here.

Video and Podcast

(10 min)

A brief video to show how carbon dioxide is emitted in producing cement and an audio podcast about the applicability of electrolysis to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in large-scale cement production.

These can be accessed at:

Video

Podcast

Optional: Reading (30 min) A reading to describe the commercial application of electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction technologies.

This can be accessed here.

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion 

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘Electrochemistry’ by LibretextsTM to teach your students the basics of electrochemistry.
  2. Navigate to the relevant sub-sections to explain electrochemical processes such as oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions and electrolysis.
  3. Use the tool to teach about voltaic/galvanic cells and electrolytic cells, and their differences.
  4. Describe Faraday’s law of electrolysis, cell potentials, Half-Cell reactions, Nernst Equation, thermodynamics of electrochemical reactions, and details of redox chemistry.
  5. Finally, describe a few applications of electrolysis such as electroplating and batteries using galvanic cells.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 2: Conduct a classroom/laboratory activity using an interactive simulation

  1. Use the interactive simulation, ‘Electrolysis’, provided by University of Oregon, to extend your students’ understanding of the process of electrolysis.
  2. Note the ‘Learning Objectives’ to teach your students about the various aspects of electrolysis and electrolytic cells.
  3. Download the attached ‘ElectrolysisCellStudentActivity’ word document as a guide to conduct this activity in the classroom.
  4. Use the link given within the tool to launch the simulation to enable your students to understand the quantitative and qualitative aspects of electrolysis and to visualize how it works at the macroscopic and microscopic levels.
  5. Use the built-in demonstration to explain how the simulation can be used to experiment with the variables involved in operating an electrolytic cell.
  6. Direct your students to run the simulation for different electrolytic conditions and note their observations.
  7. Use the list of questions given under the ‘Learning Outcomes’ tab and in the student activity sheet to assess your students’ understanding of the topic.
  8. Finally, discuss how electrolytic cells are used in real life.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 3: Discuss further using a video and audio podcast

  1. Play the video, ‘Calcium Carbonate- Disintegrating Quicklime’ by the Royal Institute, London, to explain how producing cement results in the release of carbon dioxide through heating and slaking processes, thus adding to atmospheric greenhouse gases that can cause global warming.
  1. Use the audio podcast, ‘New approach suggests path to emissions-free cement’ by the MIT News Office, to explain how the world-wide large-scale cement production significantly contributes towards global carbon emissions.
  2. Use the tool to describe a new process involving electrolysis, developed by MIT researchers, to eliminate carbon emissions from cement production.
  3. The scientific paper detailing this study can be accessed separately in the additional resources section of this lesson plan.

The video can be accessed here.

The podcast can be accessed here.

 

Step 4: Optional Reading: Homework Assignment (30 min)

Use the scientific review, ‘Progress toward Commercial Application of Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Reduction’ by Chi Chen et al., Chem, to enable your students to understand how various electrochemical processes are being developed to reduce global carbon emissions that contribute towards global warming and climate change.

This can be accessed here.

As a high school Physics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching about power, energy, and dynamics through the design and function of a wind turbine.

This lesson plan will help you teach various Physics concepts such as power, energy, and dynamics through the working of a wind turbine. In the context of global warming due to carbon emissions, wind power is a renewable and clean source of energy that can be harnessed as electricity by wind turbines. Thus, this lesson plan will enable the students to apply the concepts of energy, electrical energy, and power in a real-world scenario.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Physics.

This is a lesson plan developed by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes (CLEX) and the Monash Climate Change Communication Research Hub (MCCCRH) with contributions by Troy Garrett (Winmalee High School); Dr Sanaa Hobeichi and Dr Ian Macadam (CLEX); Tahnee Burgess and Dr David Holmes (MCCCRH); and Dr. Roger Dargaville (Monash University).

The lesson plan originated at the “Climate across the Curriculum: Educational Resources for Teachers” workshop at the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (AMOS) conference held in February 2020 in Fremantle, Western Australia. The workshop was supported by AMOS, CLEX, MCCCRH, the Schools Weather and Air Quality (SWAQ) Citizen Science project, TROP ICSU and the University of Western Australia. A version of the lesson plan tailored for use in Australian classrooms is available at https://www.monash.edu/mcccrh/projects/climate-classrooms.

Curriculum Code (Australia):

  • ACSPH037: Electrical circuits enable electrical energy to be transferred efficiently over large distances and transformed into a range of other useful forms of energy including thermal and kinetic energy, and light.
  • ACSPH039: Energy is conserved in the energy transfers and transformations that occur in an electrical circuit.
  • ACSPH042: Power is the rate at which energy is transformed by a circuit component; power enables quantitative analysis of energy transformations in the circuit.
  • ACSPH065: Energy is conserved in isolated systems and is transferred from one object to another when a force is applied over a distance; this causes work to be done and changes to kinetic and/or potential energy of objects.

Cross Curriculum Priority (Australia): Sustainability

Presumed Knowledge (Australia):

  • Kinetic energy (ACSPH065)
  • Conservation of energy (ACSPH039)
  • Electrical energy and power (ACSPH037)
  • Rate of energy and power (ACSPH042)

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school
Discipline Physics
Topic(s) in Discipline Power, Energy, Work, Conservation of Energy, Electrical Energy,

Dynamics, Transformers, Wind Turbine

Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global, Australia
Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
70 min

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is wind energy?
  2. How can wind power be harnessed for electricity using wind turbines?
  3. How can you compute the energy available due to wind?
  4. What are the advantages and challenges of producing electricity from a wind turbine?

Contents of Lesson Plan

Teaching Module (20 min) A teaching module to introduce or reacquaint students with concepts such as energy and power. It also includes a case study highlighting the World’s Energy Use and the need for renewable sources of energy.
This can be accessed here.
Video (~5.5 min) A video to introduce wind turbines and how they harness wind energy (a renewable source) to generate electricity.
This can be accessed here.
Classroom Activity (2.5 min + 40 min) A brief video to explain the physics of wind power followed by a solved word problem to compute the wind energy available for wind turbines to convert to electrical energy.
The video can be accessed here.

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘6: Power’ by LibreTextsTM to bring together concepts we have learnt so far- energy, power, work, electrical energy, conservation of energy and transformers.
  2. Play the video tutorial within the text, to teach how numerical problems can be solved for computing values such as energy generated, and work done.
  3. Navigate to the next page (6.7), to read a case study on the World’s Energy Use.
  4. Discuss how fossil fuel-based energy generation is undesirable in the context of climate change and the need to increase the use of renewable and cleaner sources of energy such as wind energy.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 2: Extend understanding

  1. Explain to your students that they will now apply their understanding of the different concepts learnt in physics in a real-world situation by looking at how wind turbines work and identify the physics principles behind this form of renewable energy.
  2. Ask your students what they already know about wind turbines and about how they work. Allow the students to respond with their ideas and summarize their main points on the board.
  3. Play the video, ‘How do Wind Turbines Work’ by LearnEngineering, to introduce the topic of using wind energy to generate electricity by wind turbines. Use this video to describe various aspects of wind turbines and the science involved in the electricity they produce.
  4. Allow some time for a classroom discussion following the video. Draw attention to Betz’s Limit as a new idea.

The video can be accessed here.

Step 3: Classroom Activity

  1. Ask your students: How can we determine the kinetic energy of a mass of air of density that is moving at the speed through a turbine of radius r?
  2. Form groups and encourage your students to determine the general formula for calculating the kinetic energy of a mass of moving air. Students will need to combine density ( ρ=m/V) ) with the volume of airflow (V=Av ), the area of a circle ( A=πr2)with the kinetic energy formula (1/2 mv2 ) to define the kinetic energy of a mass of air as (KE=1/2 πr2 ρv3 ).
  3. Play the video, ‘The Physics of Wind Power: how does a wind turbine work?’ by the European Energy Centre (EEC) to elucidate how the kinetic energy of a mass of air moving through a wind turbine can be determined. This can be accessed here.
  4. Solve a word problem with guidance:

Consider a wind turbine with a span of 100 m is situated at a site, subjected to constant 8ms(-1) wind. If the air density is 1.25 kgm(-3), how much kinetic energy passes through the plane of the blades every second?
Solution: We can directly substitute in the formula KE=1/2πr2 ρv3,  but instead we will use a different strategy.

Strategy:

  1.  Determine the area of the plane
  2.  Determine the volume of air passing through plane every second
  3.  Determine the mass of air passing through plane every second
  4.  Calculate the kinetic energy of the mass of air passing through the plane every second

A=πr2
A=π (50)2

A=7854 m2

At 8ms(-1), volume through plane

V=Av
V=7854m2 × 8 ms(-1)
V=62,832 m3 s(-1)
With density of ρ=1.25 kgm(-3)

m=ρV
m=1.25 kg(m)(-3) × 62,832 m3 s(-1)
m=78,540 kgs(-1)

Kinetic energy every second
KE=1/2 mv2
KE=1/2 (78,540 kg s(-1) ) × 82  m2 s(-2)
KE/s  = 2.513×(10)6 Js(-1)

P = 2.513 × (10)6  W = 2513 kW

5. Give a word problem for independent practice
Consider a wind turbine with a span of 50 m is situated at a site, subjected to a constant 12 ms-1 wind. If the air density is 1.23 kgm(-3), how much kinetic energy passes through the plane of the blades every second? Round your answer to 3 s.f.

Solution:
Kinetic Energy every second
(KE)/s =1/2 πr2 ρv3

(KE)/s=1/2 π (50)2 (1.23) (12 ) (m2 )(kg/m3) (m/s)3
(KE)/s=8,340,000 m kg s(-3)
(KE)/s =8.34 × (10) J s(-1)
P = 8.34 × (10)6 W = 8,340  kW

6. Wrap up the session with a discussion on ways other than wind energy to generate sustainable energy. Discuss their benefits and caveats in the context of climate change.

7. Learning Extensions:

Electricity in Households: Draw attention to how this energy can be used in homes. We wish to sell this energy to households, and we need a unit of measure that makes sense to the average person. The unit used is called a kilowatt-hour (kWh) and is defined as the energy delivered to a 1000 W appliance over 1 hour. Determine how much 1 kWh is in terms of joules.

Solution:
P=E/t
E=Pt
E=1000 J s(-1) × 3600  s
E=3.6× (10)6 J

Cost of Electrical Energy: Students to research the cost of electrical energy by visiting power-company websites to get rates. Typical rates in Australia are 0.15-0.30 AUD/kWh.

Students to then determine the revenue generated by this wind turbine per day (by multiplying Energy electrical with the rate they find).

As a high school or introductory undergraduate Biological Sciences teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to teach about insect pollination and the impact of climate change on pollinators, pollinator systems and food security.

This lesson plan will allow you to teach about insect pollination and various plant-pollinator systems. It includes a hands-on activity to teach your students about plant adaptations and nectar guides, different types of pollinators, their role in the natural and man-made world, and the environmental factors that affect pollinator behavior and effectiveness. This lesson plan will further explain how warming global temperatures, changes in precipitation patterns, and extreme weather events due to climate change, influence insect pollination.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Biological Sciences.

Lesson plan developed with contribution from Gargi Khandelwal, St. Xavier’s College, Mumbai, India. Want to know more about how to contribute a Lesson Plan? CONTACT US

Pollinators

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is a plant-pollinator system? Give examples.
  1. How do environmental changes affect insect pollinator behavior?
  1. What is the importance of insect pollination for global food security?
  1. What are the impacts of climate change on insect pollination?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Biological Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Pollination, Fertilization, Insect Pollination, Pollinators,

Plant-Pollinator Systems, Adaptations, Nectar Guides,

Types of Pollinators, Pollinator Behavior, Flower Structure,

Flower Mechanics, Pollen Viability, Stigma Receptivity, Pollen Tube Growth

Climate Topic Climate and the Biosphere
Location Global, USA
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
2-3 sessions, 45-60 min each

Contents

Reading

(10 min)

A brief introduction to insect pollination and types of insect pollinators.

This can be accessed  here.

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(30-40 min)

A set of hands-on classroom/laboratory and field activities to teach about flower mechanics and adaptations for pollination, and the role of insect pollinators in enabling fertilization and plant reproduction.

These can be accessed at:

For High School

For High School and Undergraduate

Video

(~5 min)

A video to discuss research on bee data and related satellite imagery that shows that climate change is affecting plants and pollination.

This can be accessed here.

Optional: Reading (60 min) A reading to describe the importance of crop pollination by insects, the factors involved, and the impacts of climate change on them.

This can be accessed here.

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion 

      1. Use the reading, ‘Pollination by Insects’ by LibreTextsTM, UC Davis, to briefly introduce the topic of insect pollination to your students.
      2. Use this reading to describe the different types of insect pollinators, plant adaptations and nectar guides.
      3. Discuss how both insects and flowers benefit from the symbiotic relationship in plant-pollinator systems.

      This can be accessed  here.

Step2 : Conduct a set of classroom/laboratory/field activities

  1. Use the hands-on set of classroom/laboratory activities, ‘Bouquet of Flowers’ by Cornell Institute for Biology Teachers, Cornell University, to extend student understanding about flower design, and plant and vector adaptations for pollination.
  2. Use the activities to enable students to learn about and examine pollen grains, pollen tubes, and pollen germination.

This can be accessed here.

  1. Use the hands-on set of field activities, ‘Pollination Ecology: Field Studies of Insect Visitation and Pollen Transfer Rates’ by Judy Parrish, Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology (TIEE), Ecological Society of America, to enable your students to understand plant-pollinator systems, flowering times, insect visitation rates, and pollen ecology.
  2. Use the built-in questions to evaluate student understanding of these topics.
  3. Use the tool to design student lab/field experiments to enable them to test various hypotheses related to the topics, analyze data, and prepare a formal report.
  4. Finally, discuss the student reports in the context of a changing climate. Encourage your students to comment on how their field observations could be affected by global warming, changing precipitation, and extreme weather conditions.

This can be accessed here.

Step 3: Discuss further

  1. Use the video, ‘Sting of Climate Change’ by NASA (Climate Change and Global Warming) to describe an effect of climate change on plants and insect pollination. Use the tool to talk about NASA scientist Wayne Esaias’ research on bee data and related satellite imagery.
  2. Discuss the observations that global warming has resulted in early flowering times that may not coincide with bee visitation periods and thereby, impact pollination in flowering plants.
  3. Finally, talk about the interdependence of bees and flowering plants and how climate change may affect their survival.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 4: Optional Undergraduate Homework Assignment: Reading

  1. Use FAO’s 2011 report, ‘Potential Effects of Climate Change on Crop Pollination’ to enable your students to understand the effects of climate change on pollinators, and the temperature sensitivity of crop pollinators and entomophilous crops.
  1. Instruct your students to read the report as a homework assignment and it follow up with a classroom discussion.
  2. Use the reading to highlight the different climate variables such as temperature, precipitation, and extreme climate events that affect crop pollination.
  3. Further, use the reading to discuss how climate change has affected quality and quantity of nectar and pollen, phenological events, and pollinator behavior, visitation rates, and distribution.
  4. Finally, discuss the economic implications of the effects of climate change on crop pollination and thereby, on global food security.

This can be accessed here.

As a high school Mathematics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching Formula Substitution in algebra after introducing formulas, numbers, variables, and constants.

Global warming due to fossil fuel emissions, is believed to be one of the causes for climate change. Therefore, there is an increased interest in the use of renewable and cleaner sources of energy. This lesson plan will help improve students’ literacy in clean energy sources while enabling them to practice Formula Substitution. It includes resources to teach your students about the components of formulas, and substitution in a formula using the energy equation for wind turbines, to enable them to understand the energy available from wind.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Mathematics.

Curriculum Code (Australia):

  • ACMEM035: substitute numerical values into algebraic expressions
  • ACMEM036: substitute given values for the other pronumerals in a mathematical formula to find the value of the subject of the formula

Cross Curriculum Priority (Australia): Sustainability

Presumed Knowledge (Australia):

  • Arithmetic with real numbers and the use of index notation (ACMNA150, ACMNA153, ACMNA183, and ACMNA154).
  • Substitute values into formulae to determine an unknown (ACMNA234).
  • Use units of energy to the consumption of electricity (ACMEM031)
  • Convert from one unit of energy to another (ACMEM034)

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school
Discipline Mathematics
Topic(s) in Discipline Formulae and their components: Numbers, Variables, and Constants; Formula Substitution
Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global, Australia
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
50 min

This is a lesson plan developed by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes (CLEX) and the Monash Climate Change Communication Research Hub (MCCCRH) with contributions by Dr Sanaa Hobeichi and Dr Ian Macadam (CLEX); Tahnee Burgess and Dr David Holmes (MCCCRH); and Dr. Roger Dargaville (Monash University).

The lesson plan originated at the “Climate across the Curriculum: Educational Resources for Teachers” workshop at the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (AMOS) conference held in February 2020 in Fremantle, Western Australia. The workshop was supported by AMOS, CLEX, MCCCRH, the Schools Weather and Air Quality (SWAQ) Citizen Science project, TROP ICSU and the University of Western Australia. A version of the lesson plan tailored for use in Australian classrooms is available at https://www.monash.edu/mcccrh/projects/climate-classrooms.

Want to know more about how to contribute a Lesson Plan? CONTACT US

Contents of Lesson Plan

Teaching Module

(10 min)

A teaching module to introduce formulas, variables, numbers, constants, and substitution in formulas.

This can be accessed here.

Visualization (2.5 min) An interactive visualization of per capita CO2 emissions versus electricity from renewables (2014).

This can be accessed here.

Video

(2.5 min)

A video to introduce the topic of wind power.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom Activity

(~5 min + 30 min)

A PowerPoint presentation of a solved word problem to compute wind energy from a wind turbine (using Formula Substitution) followed by solving textbook questions for independent practice.

This is available as a separate downloadable document here..

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is wind energy? How can it be harnessed for electricity?
  2. How can you compute the energy available due to wind?
  3. What are the advantages and challenges of producing electricity from a wind turbine?

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘Formulas’ by The Improving Mathematics Education in Schools (TIMES) Project, Australian Govt., to introduce or reacquaint your students with formulas and their components- variables, numbers, and constants.
  2. Encourage them to identify the variables, numbers and constants in a set of formulas (e.g.) given in the text.
  3. Ask them to recall examples of formulas they know and identify their elements.
  4. Use the solved examples in the text to explain the subject of the formula and how substitution in a formula is done to find its value.
  5. Explain what an equation is and how it can be solved by substitution using the given examples.

This can be accessed here.

Step 2: Initiate discussion

Use the interactive visualization, ‘CO2 emissions per capita vs. share of electricity from renewables, 2014’ by Our World in Data, to initiate a brief discussion about global warming due to carbon emissions and its effect on climate change. Allow the students to make various country selections on the interactive chart to visualize their contributions to these sectors. Thus, emphasize on the importance of renewable and clean sources of energy as opposed to fossil-fuel-based energy.

This can be accessed here.

Step 3: Introduce the topic of wind power

  1. Use the video, ‘Wind Power’ by Khan Academy to introduce your students to wind energy as a renewable and clean source of energy. Use this video to explain how wind energy is harnessed for electricity production using wind turbines.
  2. This can be accessed here.
  3. Explain to your students that in the ensuing classroom activity, the equation for measuring the wind energy will be used as an example for formula substitution to find the value of total energy harnessed by the wind turbine.

Step 4: Apply understanding

  1. Use the PowerPoint presentation, ‘A teaching exercise for renewable energy’ by Dr. Roger Dargaville, Monash University, to guide your students through a worked example of formula substitution.
  2. Use this exercise to show your students how the energy equation for the wind turbine can be used to find out the amount of wind power the turbine receives or is available for it to harness. The working out of the answers appears step-by-step on mouse clicks in the presentation.
  1. The PowerPoint presentation can be accessed as an independent downloadable in this lesson plan.
  1. Following the solved example, encourage your students to independently solve a selection of questions from their textbooks, based on students’ abilities and fluency in the topic.

As a high school Geography, Humanities or Social Sciences teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching about human-induced (anthropogenic) environmental changes that challenge sustainability and could be responsible for global climate change.

This lesson engages students in learning activities that enable them to understand how local actions can have global effects. They will see how their choices can impact the environment and climate change positively or negatively. Students will carry out an energy audit of their class/school for air conditioning or heating use. They will develop inquiry questions to learn about their school’s energy use. They can then suggest actions that individual classrooms, buildings, or the whole school can take to decrease energy use.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Geography, Humanities or Social Sciences.

 

Curriculum Code (Australia):

  • ACHGK070: Human-induced environmental changes that challenge sustainability
  • ACHGK071: Environmental world views of people and their implications for environmental management

Cross Curriculum Priority (Australia): Sustainability

  • Building capacities for thinking and acting in ways that are necessary to create a more sustainable future.
  • Promote reflective thinking processes in young people and empower them to design action that will lead to a more equitable and sustainable future.

Presumed Knowledge (Australia):

  • Students understand what emissions are, how they are produced, and how emissions impact climate change.
  • Students understand how to read a map.

 

This is a lesson plan developed by the ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes (CLEX) and the Monash Climate Change Communication Research Hub (MCCCRH) with contributions by Dr Sanaa Hobeichi and Dr Ian Macadam (CLEX); Tahnee Burgess and Dr David Holmes (MCCCRH); Caitlin Bell (John Forrest Secondary College); Dr Melissa Hart (the Schools Weather and Air Quality (SWAQ) Citizen Science project); Andrew Rollin (John Curtin College of the Arts); and Ashleigh Lustica (Fremantle College).

The lesson plan originated at the “Climate across the Curriculum: Educational Resources for Teachers” workshop at the Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society (AMOS) conference held in February 2020 in Fremantle, Western Australia. The workshop was supported by AMOS, CLEX, MCCCRH, SWAQ, TROP ICSU and the University of Western Australia. A version of the lesson plan tailored for use in Australian classrooms is available at https://www.monash.edu/mcccrh/projects/climate-classrooms.

Want to know more about how to contribute a Lesson Plan? CONTACT US

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Geography, Humanities, Social Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Ecological Footprint, Energy Use,

Energy Audit, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

Climate Topic Climate and the Anthroposphere
Location Global, Australia
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
200 min (4 sessions)

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is your individual ecological footprint on Earth?
  2. What does your school’s energy audit look like?
  3. How do the carbon emissions of your country compare with others/rest of the world?
  4. What actions can be taken by you to reduce energy usage?

Contents of Lesson Plan

Simulation (10 min) A WWF Ecological Footprint calculator to calculate one’s ecological footprint from lifestyle choices. This tool allows students to see how many planets would be required to support the Earth’s population if everyone lived like them.

This can be accessed here.

Reading

(20 min)

An article from the Sydney Morning Herald newspaper on the impact of hot days on electricity supply in the context of increased frequency of such occurrences according to climate projections.

This can be accessed here.

Classroom Activity

(50 min)

A full lesson by Cool Australia including an audit document for students to record and audit their school’s energy use. It includes typical energy ratings for students to use in calculating energy consumption. Guidance is provided in the Teacher Worksheet.

Note: You will have to sign up for a Cool Australia Log In to access all teaching and student material.

This can be accessed here.

Visualization (5 min) An interactive map and graph of per capita annual emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂) by Our World in Data, based on territorial emissions. The emissions data can be downloaded in a ‘.csv’ format.

This can be accessed here.

Simulation

(5 min)

An interactive electricity bill calculator for students to put in their energy usage and get suggestions on how to cut costs by using optimally or reducing energy use.

Note: This tool is specific to Australia. Teachers may use a region-specific tool for their lesson or use this for demonstration purposes.

This can be accessed here.

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Pre-lesson Activity 

Before the first session, ask your students to calculate their ecological footprint using the WWF Australia ‘What is your Ecological Footprint?’ calculator at home. Direct them to note down their results of:

  1. How many planets do we need if everybody lives like you?
  2. When is your personal Overshoot Day?

This can be accessed here.

 

Session 1: Starter Task- Think, Pair, Share

Start the first session by posing a few questions to your students:

  1. What were your results in the WWF Ecological Footprint?
  2. What do you think are the main ways people use energy in their lives?
  3. In what ways do you think you could personally reduce your energy use?
  4. What would be the easiest ways to reduce vs. the most impactful?’

Use the reading, ‘The day from hell: why the grid melts down in hot weather’ by Michael Bachelard, Sydney Morning Herald (SMH), to prompt a discussion about people’s reliance on energy in their day-to-day lives and what it might feel like to have restrictions on energy use. Direct your students to read the article to understand the impacts of extremely hot days on the electricity system.

This can be accessed here.

Ask them how such hot days could impact their school day. Discuss ways of making better choices in daily energy use by identifying personal, industry, and government responsibilities.

 

Primer for Session 2:

Ask the students to brainstorm about all the ways energy is used in the school, focusing in on cooling and heating. Organize them in pairs or small groups and guide them to plan for an energy audit activity using the following pointers.

  1. Decide how you are going to find out about the school’s energy use in cooling and heating (e.g. observing and interviewing).
  2. Develop questions you might need to ask to find out what kind of AC/heating is used (e.g. split system, ducted), how long is it used, what temperature is it set at, when it is turned on/off (which outdoor temp?).
  3. Decide on-spot audit (proportion of rooms if in a large school) or complete audit if possible.

Consider who you may need to get information from (individual teachers, administration, caretakers) and how you will get this information from them.

 

Session 2: Group Activity

Distribute the Cool Australia School Energy Audit workbook to all groups of students. Alternatively, encourage students to focus on their own inquiry questions to guide their audit.

Note: You will have to sign up for a Cool Australia Log In to access all teaching and student material.

This can be accessed here.

  1. Direct your students to follow the guidelines in the Cool Australia School Energy Audit workbook. Alternatively, carry out your own audit plan following your inquiry questions.
  2. Allow the students to use class time to conduct their surveys/interviews.
  3. As an extension, ask them to identify any current good practices such as the use of solar panels, energy-efficient devices, reflective films on windows, behavioral norms common to the school.

 

Session 3: Extend Understanding

A) Begin by allowing students to explore Our World in Data’s interactive per capita emissions map, ‘CO2 emissions per capita, 2017’ and notice your country’s place in per capita’s emissions rankings (5 min).

This can be accessed here.

Use these reflection questions:

  1. What do you notice about the rankings?
  2. What is interesting or surprising to you?
  3. What can be done?

B) Invite groups to present the findings of their school energy audits (15 min).

Collate all findings and display them for analysis and discussion – on posters, on a gallery walk or on a shared online document projected for the whole class to see.

Think, pair, share:

  1. Analyze audit data, e.g. averages of temperature, the number of hours devices are used, behaviors around heating and cooling energy use.
  2. Identify the rooms/places in the school outside the average, both high and low. Discuss why this might be happening.
  3. Determine an appropriate temperature most conducive to learning (classroom vs gym vs lunchroom).
  4. Locate which rooms/places in the school are above (heating) or below this temperature (cooling) to target your action.
  5. Calculate the hours or energy saved by reducing energy use in specific areas Consider monetary savings by reducing energy use. Students can use the Synergy online simulator, ‘Reduce your bill’.

This can be accessed here.

C) Classroom Discussion (10 min):

Encourage the students to think critically about positive changes they recommend, and how best to communicate the energy audit findings.

  1. Ask them what specific and positive changes can they recommend around reducing the use of heating or cooling in our school? What broad suggestions will reduce energy use?
  2. Question them further about what they can personally do to decrease energy use with the information they have now gathered?

D) Further Action Plan (10 min):

Use the following pointers-

  1. Who needs to know about the proposed changes (e.g. Individual teachers, students, school administration)?
  2. How should you communicate these changes, so they are adopted by these different groups? (infographic, create a how-to video, presentations)?
  3. What information would you include to convince them that this is the best for your local and global community?
  4. How would you persuade them?

E) Reflection Questions on Action Plan (10 min):

  1. What are the possible advantages/disadvantages of your proposed action for the school to take?
  2. How have your feelings about our carbon emissions and impacts changed since completing this investigation?
  3. How do you feel now about your carbon emissions and the negative impacts it has?

F) Homework Assignment:

Ask your students to create a presentation that shows their proposed actions and details, giving reasons for choosing these actions and details of the advantages and disadvantages of implementing them.

 

Session 4: Group Presentation

Direct your students to present their action plan to the school in a format appropriate to their audience, inclusive of evidence and explanation as to why such changes are important. Emphasize how this reduced energy use will be beneficial in the larger context of anthropogenic or human-induced impacts on climate change.

Visualization: Show Your Stripes: Changes in Temperature

As a high school or undergraduate Mathematics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching introductory statistics and specifically linear regression.

This lesson plan will allow you to teach introductory statistics through linear regression assignments. The lesson plan includes a hands-on computer-based classroom activity to be conducted on datasets of Arctic Ice Data (1979-2017). This activity includes a set of inquiry-based questions that will enable your students to apply their understanding of scatter plots, regression equations, correlation coefficients, regression lines, and linear regression with residual (outlier) plots.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Mathematics.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. Use an example to describe linear regression analysis.
  2. Is the extent of the Arctic Sea Ice decreasing since 1979?
  3. Has the monthly extent of Arctic Sea Ice changed from 1979- 2017?
  4. Discuss the Ice Albedo Feedback and Global Warming to explain the differences in extent of Arctic Sea Ice over the past four decades.

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Mathematics
Topic(s) in Discipline Scatter Plots, Correlation Coefficients, Regression Equations, Linear Regression, Residual (Outlier) Plots
Climate Topic Climate and the Cryosphere

Climate Variability Record

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
50-60 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(25 -30 min)

A teaching module to explain the basics of scatter plots, correlation coefficients, regression equations, and linear regression with residual (outlier) plots.

This can be accessed here:

For High School

For Undergraduate

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(20 min)

A classroom activity to apply understanding of linear regression using datasets of the extent of Arctic Sea Ice (1979-2017).

Go to the Activity

Visualization (5 min) An interactive visualization of changes in the extent of Arctic Sea Ice from 1979-2020

Go to the Resource

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

 

1 Topic introduction and discussion 1.         Use the teaching module, ‘Introduction-Linear Regression and Correlation’ by OpenStaxTM, Rice University (for High School level) or ‘Chapter-3: Linear Regression’ provided by Ramesh Sridharan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (for Undergraduate level), to introduce these topics of basic statistics.

2.         Navigate to the sub-sections within the module to the basics of scatter plots, correlation coefficients, regression equations, and linear regression.

3.         Use the in-built practice exercises and quizzes to evaluate your students’ understanding of the topics.

For High School

For Undergraduate

2 Develop the topic further
  1. Use the classroom activity, ‘Arctic Ice Data’ from Sustainability Math by Thomas J. Pfaff, Professor of Mathematics, Ithaca College, USA, to enable your students to apply their understanding of linear regression with residual (outlier) plots using datasets from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).
  2. This classroom activity includes datasets of the monthly extent of Arctic Sea Ice linked from NSIDC’s observations from 1979 to 2017. This data is provided in an Excel spreadsheet that you may use in your classroom to explain the mathematical functions and methods.
  3. Direct your students to download the Excel file (with dataset) and proceed with the classroom activity.
  4. Encourage your students to answer topical questions by applying their understanding of scatter plots, correlation coefficients, regression equations, and linear regression.
  5. Use the regression analyses performed to initiate a discussion on the decrease in extent of Arctic Sea Ice due to the Ice Albedo Feedback and anthropogenically forced Global Warming (links to explanatory notes given within the tool).

Go to the Activity Arctic Ice Data

3 Extend understanding Use the visualization, ‘Charctic Interactive Sea Ice Graph’ from NSIDC to encourage discussion amongst your students about the changes in the extent of Arctic Sea Ice from the years 1979-2020. Discuss how these changes could be the result of changes in the Earth’s climate in recent times.

Go to the visualization, ‘Charctic Interactive Sea Ice Graph

As a high school or undergraduate Mathematics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching introductory calculus (integration) and specifically how to solve integration equations.

This lesson plan will allow you to teach integration using a hands-on computer-based classroom activity that includes world petroleum consumption data from 1980 to 2016. This activity includes a set of inquiry-based questions that will enable your students to apply their understanding of the relationship between a function and its integral and to set up and solve equations with an integral to describe the trend of world petroleum consumption over time. Carbon emissions from fossil fuels such as petroleum have contributed towards global warming since the beginning of the industrial age. This lesson plan also includes a classroom resource to enable your students to understand about oil production projections such as the Hubbert’s Peak Theory and the global Carbon Budget to stay within a 2-degree Celsius warming scenario, as per the UN’s Paris Agreement.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Mathematics.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is the relationship between a function and its integral?
  1. How has the world petroleum consumption changed since 1980?
  1. How does the Hubbert’s peak prediction and actual oil production in the US since 1980 differ?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Mathematics, Earth Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Setting up and solving integration equations, Relation between a function and its integral
Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global, USA
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
50-60 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(20 min)

A teaching module to explain integration and the relation between a function and its integral.

Go to the Resource

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(20 min)

A classroom activity to apply understanding of integration related problems by setting up and solving for integration equations using a dataset of the World’s Petroleum Consumption over time (1980-2016).

Go to the Activity

Teaching Module

(20 min)

A teaching module that discusses global fossil fuel reserves and the Carbon Budget for a 2-degree world. It includes a visualization and downloadable dataset to use as an additional classroom resource about the US oil production over time (1910-2016) and the Hubbert’s Peak prediction about US oil reserves.

Go to the Resource

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion 

    1. Use the teaching module, ‘Integration- Introduction’ by OpenStax, Rice University, to teach about integration and its applications.
    2. Navigate to the sub-sections within the module to explain the relation between a function and its integral.
    3. Use the in-built practice exercises and quizzes to evaluate your students’ understanding of the topics.

    Go to the Resource

Step2 : Extend understanding

  1. Use the classroom activity, ‘World Petroleum Consumption’ from Sustainability Math by Thomas J. Pfaff, Professor of Mathematics, Ithaca College, USA, to enable your students to apply their understanding of integration using a dataset from the US Energy Information Administration (EIA).
  2. This classroom activity includes a dataset of the World’s Petroleum Consumption from 1980 to 2016. This data is provided in an Excel spreadsheet.
  3. The classroom activity also includes a Word document that contains directions on how to use different mathematical methods on the data provided.
  4. It further includes questions that you may wish to use in your classroom to explain integration to initiate a discussion on the global oil consumption in recent times.
  5. Direct your students to download the Excel file (with datasets) and the Word document (with directions to use the dataset and a set of questions to analyze the dataset).
  6. Proceed with the classroom activity and encourage your students to answer the questions by applying their understanding of integration and setting up and solving equations with integrals.
  7. Discuss how this global petroleum consumption is responsible for carbon emissions that have contributed towards post-industrial age global warming.

Go to the Activity

Step 3: Discuss further

  1. Use the visualizations and associated reading, ‘How long before we run out of fossil fuels’ by Hannah Ritchie, Our World in Data, to discuss the global fossil fuel reserves and the carbon budget for a 2-degree world.
  2. Begin by discussing the Hubbert’s Peak Theory that predicts that the United States will run out of its oil reserves in the decades following year 2000.
  3. Then use the chart of actual US oil production over time (1910-2016) and discuss why it deviates from the Hubbert’s Peak prediction.
  4. Discuss why this is significant in the context of carbon emissions and their effect on global warming. The data for the chart is available to download as a CSV file, if you wish to perform further mathematical problems based on it.
  5. Finally, use the other visualizations to discuss the global fossil fuel reserves and the target carbon budget to ensure that global warming is kept within the 2-degree warming scenario (by reducing fossil fuel based carbon emissions), as per the UN’s Paris Agreement.

Go to the Resource

As a high school or undergraduate Mathematics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching introductory differential calculus; specifically, about differentiating logistic and exponential functions and the use of the Quotient (or Product) Rule.

This lesson plan will allow you to teach differentiating functions- logistic and exponential, using a hands-on computer-based classroom activity that includes data of photovoltaic (solar) energy production of several countries from 1990 to 2016. In the context of global warming due to carbon emissions from fossil fuel, harnessing a clean renewable source of energy like solar power is increasing across the globe and can be a potential solution in reducing our greenhouse gas emissions.

This activity includes a set of inquiry-based questions that will enable your students to apply their understanding of logistic and exponential functions and apply the Quotient (or Product) Rule to describe the rates of increase of photovoltaic energy production over time in countries such as Germany, Italy, USA, and the World. Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Mathematics.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What are differentiating functions?
  2. Distinguish between logarithmic, exponential, and logistic differentiating functions.
  3. How has the rate of global solar energy production changed since 1990?
  4. How do the rates of solar energy production in select countries (from the given datasets) differ from that of the World?
  5. Define a function for the rate of increase of the World’s solar energy production to meet its entire energy requirement.

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Mathematics
Topic(s) in Discipline Logarithmic, Exponential, Logistic Differentiating Functions,

Quotient or Product Rule

Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
50-60 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(30 min)

A teaching module to explain differentiating functions, their subtypes- logarithmic, exponential, and logistic functions, and the use of the Quotient or Product Rule.

Go to the Resource

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(20 min)

A classroom activity to apply understanding of differentiating functions using datasets of various countries’ solar (photovoltaic) energy production over time (1990-2016).

Go to the Activity

Visualizations

(10 min)

A set of interactive visualizations using similar datasets to better understand the distribution of and changes in wind energy production across the globe in recent times.

These can be accessed at:

Visualization 1

Visualization 2

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion 

    1. Use the teaching module, ‘Exponential and Logarithmic Functions’ by University of Nebraska-Lincoln, to introduce the concept of differentiating functions.
    2. Navigate to the sub-sections within the module to explain logarithmic, exponential, and logistic functions and the application of the Quotient or Power Rule.
    3. Use the in-built practice exercises and quizzes to evaluate your students’ understanding of the topics.

    Go to the Resource

Step2 : Extend understanding

  1. Use the classroom activity, ‘Country Photovoltaic Energy Production (and more)’ from Sustainability Math by Thomas J. Pfaff, Professor of Mathematics, Ithaca College, USA, to enable your students to apply their understanding of differentiating functions using datasets from the International Energy Agency (IEA).
  2. This classroom activity includes datasets of several countries’ photovoltaic energy production (including the World’s cumulative data) from 1990 to 2016. This data is provided in an Excel spreadsheet.
  3. The classroom activity also includes a Word document that contains directions on how to use different mathematical methods on the data provided.
  4. It further includes questions that you may wish to use in your classroom to explain differentiating functions to initiate a discussion on the rate of increase in global solar energy production in several countries such as Germany, Italy, and USA in recent times.
  5. Direct your students to download the Excel file (with datasets) and the Word document (with directions to use the datasets and a set of questions to analyze the datasets).
  6. The documents also include datasets of several other countries that may be used for this activity.
  7. Proceed with the classroom activity and encourage your students to answer the questions by applying their understanding of logistic and exponential differentiating functions and the Quotient (or Power) Rule.
  8. This activity also includes links to readings to help explain to your students the importance of solar energy production to meet the world’s energy requirements and discuss why this mode of energy production has been slow to increase across the world.

Go to the Activity

Step 3: Discuss further

Use the visualizations, ‘Solar Power Plants by Capacity (MW)’ by World Resources Institute (WRI) and ‘Solar energy generation, 2018’ by Our World in Data to discuss about the current capacity and distribution, and increase in capacity of global solar energy production for the years 1965-2018. Finally, discuss how the increase in the World’s solar energy production could help reduce carbon emissions and mitigate global warming.

Visualization 1

Visualization 2

 

As a high school or undergraduate Mathematics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching introductory differential calculus and specifically about polynomial and logistic differentiation and the use of the Quotient (or Product) Rule.

The derivative at different points of a differentiable function (Image: Wikipedia)

This lesson plan will allow you to teach polynomial and logistic differentiation using a hands-on computer-based classroom activity that includes wind energy production data of several countries from 1980 to 2016. In the context of global warming due to carbon emissions from fossil fuel, harnessing a clean renewable source of energy like wind power is increasing across the globe and can provide a potential solution to reducing our greenhouse gas emissions.

This activity includes a set of inquiry-based questions that will enable your students to apply their understanding of polynomial and logistic differentiation and apply the Quotient (or Product) Rule to describe the rates of increase of wind energy production over time in countries such as China, Spain, USA, and the World.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What are differentiating functions?
  1. Describe polynomial and logistic differentiation using examples.
  1. How has the rate of global wind energy production changed since 1980?
  1. How do the rates of wind energy production in select countries (from the given datasets) differ from that of the World?
  1. Define a function for the rate of increase of the World’s wind energy production to meet its entire energy requirement.

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Mathematics
Topic(s) in Discipline Polynomial and Logistic Differentiation

Quotient or Product Rule

Climate Topic Energy, Economics and Climate Change

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Climate Variability Record

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
50-60 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(30 min)

A teaching module to explain differentiating functions, polynomial and logistic differentiation, differentiation rules and the use of the Quotient or Product Rule.

Go to the Resource

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(20 min)

A classroom activity to apply understanding of polynomial and logistic differentiation using datasets of various countries’ wind energy production over time (1980-2016).

Go to the Activity

Visualizations

(10 min)

A set of interactive visualizations using similar datasets to better understand the distribution of and changes in wind energy production across the globe in recent times.

These can be accessed at:

Visualization 1

Visualization 2

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion 

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘Differentiation Rules’ by OpenStax, Rice University, to teach differentiating functions, differentiation rules, and polynomial or logistic differentiation.
  2. Navigate to the sub-sections within the module to explain the types of differentiating functions and the application of the Quotient or Power Rule.
  3. Use the in-built practice exercises and quizzes to evaluate your students’ understanding of the topics.

Go to the Resource

Step2 : Extend understanding

  1. Use the classroom activity, ‘Wind Energy by Selected Countries and World’ from Sustainability Math by Thomas J. Pfaff, Professor of Mathematics, Ithaca College, USA, to enable your students to apply their understanding of polynomial or logistic differentiation using datasets from the International Energy Agency (IEA).
  2. This classroom activity includes datasets of several countries’ wind energy production (including the World’s cumulative data) from 1980 to 2016. This data is provided in an Excel spreadsheet.
  3. The classroom activity also includes a Word document that contains directions on how to use different mathematical methods on the data provided.
  4. It further includes questions that you may wish to use in your classroom to explain differentiating functions to initiate a discussion on the rate of increase in global wind energy production in several countries such as China, Spain, and USA in recent times.
  5. Direct your students to download the Excel file (with datasets) and the Word document (with directions to use the datasets and a set of questions to analyze the datasets).
  6. The documents also include datasets of several other countries that may be used for this activity.
  7. Proceed with the classroom activity and encourage your students to answer the questions by applying their understanding of differentiating functions and the Quotient (or Power) Rule.
  8. This activity also includes links to readings to help explain to your students the basics of wind energy production and its environmental impacts.

Go to the Resource

Step 3: Discuss further

Use the visualizations, ‘Wind Power Plants by Capacity (MW)’ by World Resources Institute (WRI) and ‘Wind energy generation, 2018’ by Our World in Data to discuss about the current capacity and distribution, and increase in capacity of global wind energy production for the years 1965-2018. Finally, discuss how the increase in the World’s wind energy production could help reduce carbon emissions and mitigate global warming.

Visualization 1

Visualization 2

 

Reading: The climate in our hands – Ocean and Cryosphere

As a high school or undergraduate Mathematics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching introductory differential calculus and specifically the application of derivatives.

(top) Sea ice concentration (light blue to white) on September 18, 2019, the day of the summer minimum extent. The gold line is the median extent for 1981-2010: half of years had smaller extents, half had larger. (bottom) A graph of daily ice extent each year of the satellite record. Earlier years are in shades of light blue; recent years are in dark blue. The 2019 daily extent line is in dark pink. NOAA Climate.gov image, based on data from the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

This lesson plan will allow you to teach introductory derivatives, polynomial differentiation, and the application of derivatives. The lesson plan includes a hands-on computer-based classroom activity to be conducted on datasets of Arctic Ice Data (1980-2017). This activity includes a set of inquiry-based questions that will enable your students to apply their understanding of sixth degree polynomial differentiation, maxima/minima values, finding roots and inflection points.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Mathematics.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What are derivatives and their functions?
  1. Using an example, describe polynomial differentiation.
  1. Is the extent of the Arctic Sea Ice decreasing since 1980?
  1. Has the speed of melting of Arctic Sea Ice changed from 1980- 2017?
  1. Discuss the Ice Albedo Feedback and Global Warming to explain the differences in rates of melting of and extent of Arctic Sea Ice over the past four decades.

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school
Discipline Mathematics
Topic(s) in Discipline Derivatives, Polynomial Differentiation

Function Graph, Extrema, Concavity, Roots

Inflection Points

Climate Topic Climate and the Cryosphere

Climate Variability Record

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
60-70 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(30 min)

A teaching module to explain the basics of derivatives, derivative rules, and differentiation.

Go to the Resource

Teaching Module

(20 min)

A teaching module to explain the application of derivatives in comparing rates in differentiation and aspects of the function graph.

Go to the Resource

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(20 min)

A classroom activity to apply understanding of differential rates using datasets of Arctic Sea Ice Data (1980-2017).

Go to the Activity

Pre-activity Reading

Visualization

(5 min)

An interactive visualization of changes in the extent of Arctic Sea Ice from 1979-2020.

Go to the Visualization

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion 

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘Differentiation: definition and basic derivative rules’ by Khan Academy, to introduce the concept of derivatives and differentiation.
  2. Navigate to the sub-sections within the module to explain derivative rules, the power rule, and how to differentiate polynomials.
  3. Use the in-built practice exercises and quizzes to evaluate your students’ understanding of the topics.

Go to the Resource

Step 2: Develop the topic further

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘Derivatives and the shape of a graph’ by OpenStaxTM, Rice University, to explain to your students how related rates can be compared using derivatives.
  2. Use the sub-sections within the tool to explain various mathematical concepts for determining maxima/minima values, roots, and inflection points in the derivative function graph.

Go to the Resource

Step 3: Extend understanding

  1. Use the reading, ‘Polynomials and their Derivatives: Polynomials, Critical Points, and Inflection Points’ by Donald Byrd, Indiana University Informatics to reiterate the mathematical concepts to be applied in the ensuing activity.
  2. Use the classroom activity, ‘Arctic Sea Ice’ from Sustainability Math by Thomas J. Pfaff, Professor of Mathematics, Ithaca College, USA, to enable your students to apply their understanding of derivatives, polynomial differentiation and application of derivatives using datasets from the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC).
  3. This classroom activity includes three datasets of the extent of Arctic Sea Ice linked from NSIDC’s observations from 1980 to 2017.
  4. This data is provided in an Excel spreadsheet.
  5. The classroom activity also includes a Word document that contains directions on how to use different mathematical methods on the data provided.
  6. It further includes questions that you may wish to use in your classroom to explain mathematical functions and methods and to initiate a discussion on the decrease in extent of Arctic Sea Ice due to the Ice Albedo Feedback and anthropogenically forced Global Warming (links to explanatory notes given within the tool).
  7. Direct your students to download the Excel file (with dataset) and the Word document (with directions to use the dataset and a set of questions to analyze the dataset).
  8. Proceed with the classroom activity and encourage your students to answer the questions by applying their understanding of function graph, maxima/minima, roots, and inflection points.

Go to the Resource

 

Step 4: Discuss further

Use the visualization, ‘Charctic Interactive Sea Ice Graph’ from NSIDC to encourage discussion amongst your students about the changes in the extent of Arctic Sea Ice from the years 1979-2020. Discuss how these changes could be the result of changes in the Earth’s climate in recent times.

These can be accessed at:

Visualization

As a high school or undergraduate Biological Sciences teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to teach about Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), their genetic make-up and application in agriculture and industry.

This lesson plan will explain what GMOs are, describe how they are constructed and will introduce the question of whether GM crops could be one possible mechanism to address food and livelihood security in the face of global climate change.

The use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Biological Sciences.

This is a teacher-contributed lesson plan by Dr Sneha Bhogale, Pune, India. Want to know more about how to contribute? Contact us.

More Teacher-contributed Lesson Plans

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What are Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)? How are they used in agriculture and industry?
  2. What is the difference between GMOs and gene edited organisms?
  3. Describe how GMO crops are created.
  4. Are GMO crops one possible solution to food and livelihood security in the wake of changing climatic conditions?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Biological Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

Genetic Engineering, Gene Editing, GMO Crops

Climate Topic(s) Climate Adaptation and Mitigation

Climate and the Biosphere

Climate and the Anthroposphere

Location Global, Africa
Language(s) English
Access Online, some resources are available offline
Approximate
Time Required
70-90 min

Contents

A set of videos

(8-10 min each) and associated readings (5-7 min each)

A set of video interviews of plant scientists to introduce what GMOs are, explain how genetic engineering techniques are used to introduce/regulate desired traits or remove/ regulate undesirable factors in organisms, and the application of GMOs across different fields like agriculture and the pharmaceutical industry.

Explore various topics using separate tabs to discuss whether GMOs affect human health, plant and insect ecosystems, and how are they regulated.

Link here

Video (~10 min) A video that describes how GMO plants are created by genetic engineering techniques.

Link here

Reading (10 min) A reading that explains how GMO seeds could help African farmers deal with the adverse effects of climate change on crops.

Link here

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion

  1. Use a set of videos and associated readings, ‘The Science of GMOs’ by Purdue University, to introduce the topic of GMOs to your students
  2. Navigate through the tabs at the bottom of the webpage to explain various topics concerning GMOs, as listed below:
    1. What are GMOs?
    2. Why do we use GMOs?
    3. Do GMOs harm health?
    4. How do GMOs affect insects?
    5. How does the regulation process work?
    6. What about GMOs and weeds?
    7. What’s the story on GMOs and labeling?
    8. What is gene editing?Use each section to enable discussions regarding the different aspects of the creation and usage of GMOs in agriculture and industry.

3. Finally, discuss the difference between genetically modified crops and gene edited crops.

Go to the Resource

 

Step 2: Extend understanding

  1. Use the video, ‘How to Make a Genetically Modified Plant’ by the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science, to explain how genetic engineering techniques are used to modify the genetic material in plants to introduce, remove or regulate certain traits.
  2. Discuss, using the examples given in the video, the rationale for modifying certain traits in these plants.
  3. Describe, using the video, the molecular components (gene of interest, plasmid, promoter sequence, origin of replication (ORI), regulatory sequences, antibiotic selection gene), techniques (gene-transfer, plasmid selection), and strategies employed to create GM crops.

Go to the Video

 

Step 3: Discuss further

  1. Use the reading, ‘African farmers want GMO seeds to help weather climate change’ by John Agaba, Alliance for Science, Cornell University, to explain to your students how GM crops could possibly bolster food security in several Sub-Saharan African countries that are dealing with failed crops due to climate change.
  2. Use the text to emphasize to your students how the GM seeds could be the solution to growing crops that are more resilient in changing climatic conditions.
  3. Discuss the various case studies mentioned in the text to explain to your students the different approaches adopted by several African countries to improve their crop yield and crop resilience.

Reading here

Credits

TROP ICSU Project Summary/Concept Note, Chemistry Lesson Plan on Carbon Compounds:

Gamil Gamal, PhD

Lecturer of Meteorology,

Natural Resources Department,

Faculty of African Postgraduate Studies,

Cairo University, Egypt

 

As a high school or introductory undergraduate Chemistry, Geography or Earth Sciences teacher, you can use this set of tools to teach about the water cycle- its components, the distribution of natural water resources on Earth and the impact of climate change on it.

This lesson plan allows students to learn about the different stages of the water cycle and the factors that influence it. It includes resources that teach students about the different components of the water cycle in detail and how they can be affected by climate change. This lesson plan also enables students to learn about the distribution of water resources under a natural water cycle, how it could be altered due to anthropogenic practices, and what measures could be adopted for a sustainable future.

The use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Chemistry, Geography or Earth Sciences.

Lesson plan contributed by Dr Akanksha Gupta (Sri Venkateswara College) and Dr Vinod Kumar (Kirori Mal College), Delhi, India.

Want to know more about how to contribute? Contact us.

Teacher-Contributed Lesson Plans

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is the Earth’s natural water cycle? Describe its components.
  2. Explain how the water cycle determines the distribution of the natural water resources on Earth.
  3. How could human activities affect the Earth’s natural water cycle?
  4. How does the water cycle affect Earth’s climate and vice versa?
  5. What are the effects of global climate change on Earth’s natural water cycle?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Chemistry, Geography, Earth Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Environmental Chemistry, Water Cycle

Biogeochemical Cycles, Hydrologic Cycle

Condensation, Evaporation, Evapotranspiration

Groundwater, Precipitation, Sublimation

Climate Topic Climate and the Hydrosphere

Climate and the Atmosphere

Location Global
Language(s) English, one resource available in several languages
Access Online, some resources are available offline
Approximate
Time Required
60-90 min

Contents

Video

(~8 min)

A video that introduces the natural water cycle on Earth and briefly describes the processes involved in it.

Go to the Resource

Reading (45 min) A reading that describes the different components of the water cycle in detail. It also includes downloadable diagrams of the water cycle with a brief summary of the water cycle in several languages.

Go to the Reading

Reading (~15 min) A reading that explains how climate change affects the water cycle on Earth.

Go to the Reading

Optional: Teaching Module (~50 min) An optional comprehensive teaching module that discusses the distribution of water on Earth under a natural water cycle and how this can be affected by anthropogenic activities.

Go to the Resource

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion

  1. Use the video, ‘Water Cycle’ by Khan Academy to introduce your students to the processes involved in the water cycle on Earth.
  2. Describe how the water changes through gas-liquid phases and how each phase impacts life on Earth.
  3. Finally, discuss how the water cycle results in the distribution of saltwater and freshwater resources on Earth.

Go to the Video

 

Step 2: Extend understanding

  1. Use the webpage, ‘The Water Cycle for Adults and Advanced Students’, by the USGS (United States Geological Survey) Water Science School, to explore various aspects of the natural water cycle in detail.
  2. Use the tabs in the ‘Overview’ section to explain the different components of the water cycle such as condensation, precipitation, and evaporation.
  3. Stress on the importance of each component in maintaining the equilibrium of the natural water cycle and on the distribution of natural water resources on Earth.
  4. Direct your students to download the water cycle diagram for a visual representation of the natural water cycle.
  5. If required, use the interactive water cycle diagram in the multimedia section to enable better understanding of the topic.
  6. Note: The water cycle diagram and a summary text are available in over 60 different languages.

Go to the Resource

 

Step 3: Discuss further

  1. Use the reading, ‘The Water Cycle and Climate Change’ by UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research) Center for Science Education to explain the effects of climate change on the natural water cycle on Earth.
  2. Discuss using the text, how processes such as evaporation, precipitation, and cloud formation are affected by climate change.
  3. Further explain how these changes in turn could exacerbate global warming, leading to increased changes in the Earth’s climate.

Go to the Reading

 

Step 4 (Optional) : Teaching Module on the Water Cycle and Freshwater Resources

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘Unit 2: The Hydrologic Cycle and Freshwater Resources’ by SERC (The Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College) to discuss the different components of the water cycle, the distribution of Earth’s water resources and the possible effects of anthropogenic activities on the quality and availability of water.
  2. Use the teaching notes to enable discussions on how human beings could optimize the use of water resources to facilitate environmental justice globally and adopt sustainable practices in keeping with Earth’s natural water cycle.
  3. The teaching module has several downloadable documents such as pre-class activity sheet, assessment rubric, instructors’ notes, and lecture notes. The entire teaching module is also available to be downloaded for offline use.

Go to the Resource

As an Undergraduate Humanities (Cultural Studies; Literature; History) teacher, you can use this lesson plan as part of a course in Environmental Geography, Environmental History, General Criticism and Critical Theory.

The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable’, by Ghosh can be used to acquaint students with Environmental History of the planet and in India in particular. This work along with the debates generated by Dipesh Chakrabarty’s 2009 essay, ‘The Climate of History: Four Theses’ can be used as texts to better situate the topic of climate change in the humanities classroom. In this lesson plan students will review Ghosh’s book based on the theme of climate change in India. It includes writings on the stories, history and politics related to one of the most critical issues of our times.

The use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Humanities. This is a teacher-contributed lesson plan by Dr Maya Dodd, FLAME University, Pune, India.

Want to know more about how to contribute? Contact us.

More Teacher-contributed Lesson Plans

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. Discuss why climate change has not caught the collective imagination of writers?
  2. Explain what Amitav Ghosh refers to as ‘The Great Derangement’ in the book.
  3. ‘The Anthropocene presents a challenge not only to the arts and humanities, but also to our commonsense understandings and beyond that to contemporary culture in general’- How does Amitav Ghosh justify this statement in the book?
  4. What might a sustainable world look like? Respond to this question with reference to Ghosh’s ‘The Great Derangement’?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Humanities (Cultural Studies, Literature, History)
Topic(s) in Discipline Environmental Geography, Environmental History

General Criticism, Critical Theory, Literary Analysis

Climate Literature, Non-fiction, Fiction- Speculative

Realism, Epic, Documentary, Narrative, Storytelling, Historicization

Climate Topic Climate and the Anthroposphere
Location Global, India
Language(s) English
Access Online, some resources are available offline
Approximate
Time Required
1-2 sessions of 45 min

Contents

Reading

(7 min)

An article by author Amitav Ghosh about the absence of climate change in contemporary literary fiction.

Go to the Reading

Reading

(~5 min)

A brief write-up about the novel, ‘The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable’ from the author’s website.

Go to the Reading

Note: The book will have to be procured for the purpose of this literary analysis.

Video

(25 min)

A discussion about the aforesaid novel to encapsulate points for discourse in the literary analysis of the book.

Go to the Video

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion

Use the article in The Guardian by author Amitav Ghosh, ‘Amitav Ghosh: where is the fiction about climate change?’ to discuss his views on the evolution of the narrative in novels and why it has been resistant to include the topic of climate change. Use the text to explain how climate fiction (Cli-Fi) differs from science fiction (Sci-Fi) in the treatment of the narrative. Explain how fiction derived from climate change deviates from trends of ‘gradualism’ in contemporary narratives and yet does not belong to ‘surrealism’ and ‘magic realism’ due to its nature of being ‘real’. Thus, use the reading to emphasize the difficulty of writing about the nature of climate change and why it does not yet have a large presence in fictional works of the literary world.

This can be accessed here.

 

Step 2: Introduce the novel using the author’s note

Use the write-up on author Amitav Ghosh’s website as an introduction to his non-fiction book, ‘The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable’. Begin by discussing the title of the book- what is the ‘great derangement’ and why is climate change ‘unthinkable’ according to Ghosh. Use the brief text to introduce the different sections of this non-fiction book- literature, history and politics.

This can be accessed here.

Finally, ask your students to read the non-fiction book, ‘The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable’ as a home assignment. Note that the book will have to be procured for this assignment. Instruct them to makes notes of the key points and arguments presented whilst reading the book.

 

Step 3:  Summarize the key-points and arguments presented in the book

Play the video, “A Conversation on Amitav Ghosh’s ‘The Great Derangement’” by Dr Maya Dodd (Literary and Cultural Studies) with Paloma Chandrachud (Environmental Studies), FLAME University, India, that highlights the key points presented by the author Amitav Ghosh in the book.

This can be accessed here.

Use the following points raised in the conversation to facilitate classroom discussions for better understanding of the reviewed material:

  • Why, according to Ghosh, is climate change unimaginable or unthinkable?
  • Why can we not narrate the story of our times (in the context of climate change)?
  • Why is the current cli-fi primarily speculative and not in the mode of realism?
  • Explain why Ghosh believes that the missing narrative of climate change requires the unmasking of ‘unbelievable choices’ we have made in the past. Use the case of a high-risk area Bombay/Mumbai as an example.
  • Describe some ‘unbelievable choices’ made by us that have become the new normal.
  • Discuss how the rift in narrative between the human and the non-human has come about. Explain how this differs from older narratives especially in the context of Asian/Indian literature.
  • Explain how Eastern philosophy of the ‘sacred’ or the ‘divine’ bridges the gap between humans and non-humans.
  • Historically, discuss how the association of nature and culture has evolved.
  • Explain how Western individualism as opposed to non-Western collective values affects climate action.
  • Discuss the role of denialists and activists in influencing climate consciousness.
  • Explain why a more philosophical approach with the contextualization of history is needed to deal with global climate change where a technical fix like adhering to the Paris Agreement is not enough.
  • Debate the argument that Asia’s ‘delayed start’ abrogates its responsibility of reducing carbon emissions or sharing the burden of climate mitigation.
  • Discuss how ‘The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable’ by Amitav Ghosh can be considered as the fourth book to the Ibis trilogy by the same author.

 

உலகெங்குமுள்ள கல்வித்திட்டங்களில் காலநிலைமாற்றம் மாற்றம் குறித்த பாடம்

  • நாம் வாழும் இந்தக் காலத்தில் காலநிலை மாற்றமானது முக்கிய சிக்கலாகும்.
  • உலகின் பல நாடுகள் மற்றும் அவற்றின் குடிமக்களின் நிலையான வளர்ச்சியினை இது பாதிக்கின்றது.
  • இதற்கு தீர்வு காண வேண்டுமேயானால் இச்சிக்கலின் தாக்கம் குறித்தக் கூறுகளை மக்கள் உணர்ந்திருத்தல் அவசியமாகும்.
  • காலநிலை மாற்றத்தின் விளைவுகளை குறைக்கும் முயற்சிகள், உலகளாவிய அறிவியலை மையமாக வைத்து உள்ளூர்களில் வேறூன்றும் தீர்வுகளாகவே இருக்க வேண்டும்.
  • காலநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்த கல்வியினை முறைசார் கல்வியின் கட்டமைப்புடன் இணைப்பதன் மூலம் தற்போதைய மற்றும் எதிர்கால தலைமுறையினரை பருவநிலை மாற்றத்திற்கு எதிரான உள்ளூர் தீர்வுகளை கண்டறியும்  திறன்களில் ஆயத்தப்படுத்தக்கூடும். இவை பருவநிலை மாற்றத்திற்கேற்ப தங்களை தகவமைத்துக்கொண்டு, விளைவுகளை மட்டுப்படுத்தி, அதன் தாக்கத்திலிருந்து மீள உதவும் தீர்வுகளாக இருக்கக்கூடும்.

TROP ICSU (“Trans-disciplinary Research Oriented Pedagogy for Improving Climate Studies and Understanding”) என்பது பருவநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்த புரிதல் மற்றும் கல்வியினை மேம்படுத்தும் ஒரு ஒழுங்குசார்ந்த  ஆற்றுப்படுத்தும் கல்வியியல் திட்டம் ஆகும் ((https://climatescienceteaching.org/; https://tropicsu.org/)). பருவநிலை மாற்றம் தொடர்புடைய தலைப்புகளை பள்ளி மற்றும் கல்லூரிகளில்  மையக் கல்வித்திட்டங்களில் இணைத்து, மாணவர்களிடையே பருவநிலை மாற்றத்தின் காரணங்கள் மற்றும் விளைவுகள் குறித்த விழிப்புணர்வை அதிகரிப்தே இத்திட்டத்தின் பிரதான நோக்கமாகும். பருவநிலை மாற்றம் சார்ந்த சிக்கல்களை எதிர்கொள்ளும் குறிக்கோளுடன், மனித இனம் முழுவதும் இணைந்து செயல்பட உதவும் ரீதியில் பருவநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்த அறிவை மக்களாட்சிமயமாக்கும் பார்வையின் ஒரு அங்கமான திட்டமே TROP ICSU.  

சரியான மற்றும் வரையறுக்கப்பட்ட கல்வித்துறுப்புகளைக் கொண்டு பருவநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்த தலைப்புகளை முறைசார் கல்வி கட்டமைப்பின் மையக் கல்வித்திட்டத்தில் இணைக்ககூடிய ஒரு நம்பகத்தன்மையுடனான மூலத்தை வழங்குவதிலேயே இத்திட்டம் பிரதான கவனம் செலுத்துக்கிறது. இந்த அணுகுமுறை மூலம் அனைத்து மாணவர்களும் அவர்களின் மையத்துறைகளை கடந்து பருவநிலை மாற்றத்திற்கான காரணிகள் மற்றும் விளைவுகள் குறித்து விழிப்புணர்வுடன் இருக்க முடியும். மேலும், இதனால் அவர்கள் இந்த உலகளாவிய சிக்கலிற்கு பல புதுமையான உள்ளூர் தீர்வுகளைக் கண்டறியும் திறன்களை வளர்த்துக்கொள்ளக் கூடும்.

 

எனவே TROP ICSU ஐக்கிய நாடுகளின் நிலைத்த மேம்பாட்டு வளர்ச்சி குறிக்கோள்களில் (United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)) நான்காவதான 'தரமான கல்வி' மற்றும் பதிமூன்றாவதான  'பருவநிலை செயல்பாடு' ஆகியவற்றின் கீழ் நேரடியாக சேர்ந்துள்ளது.

இத்திட்டத்தின் குறிக்கோள்களை அடையும் பொருட்டு பூனேவிலுள்ள இந்திய அறிவியல், கல்வி மற்றும் ஆராய்ச்சி நிறுவனத்தில் (Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune) அமைந்துள்ள TROP ICSU திட்ட அமலாக்கக் குழு, உலகெங்கிலுமிருந்து சேகரிக்கப்பட்ட கற்பிக்க உதவும் வளங்களை திரட்டி, ஒன்றினைத்து, வரிசைப்படுத்தி, சரிப்பார்த்து ஒரு  களஞ்சியத்தை உருவாக்கியுள்ளது. இதைக்கொண்டு ஆசிரியர்கள் துறைக்கேற்ற எடுத்துக்காட்டுகள், நேர்வாய்வுகள் மற்றும் நடவடிக்கைகளின் உதவியோடு ஒவ்வொரு துறைக்கேற்ப பருவநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்த தலைப்புகளை பயிற்றுவிக்கக்கூடும். இதன்மூலம் ஏற்கனவே உள்ள கல்வித்திட்டத்துடன் பருவநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்த கல்வியினை இணைக்கும் ஒரு புதுமையான கல்வியியல் அணுகுமுறையினை இத்திட்டம் பறைசாற்றியுள்ளது. இத்திட்டத்தின் ஒரு அங்கமாக இந்தக்குழு பெரும் எண்ணிக்கையிலான (சில விவரமான படிப்பினைத் திட்டங்களுடனான)  ஒரு பயிற்றுவிக்கும் வளமூலத்தை உருவாக்கி பருவநிலை மாற்ற தலைப்புகளை மையக்கல்வித்திட்டதுடன் இணைப்பது சாத்தியமே என நிரூபித்துள்ளது. பருவநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்து தலைப்புகளை வழக்கமான கல்வித் தலைப்புகளுடன் இணைக்கவும் அத்தலைப்புகளின் அறிவியல் ஏற்புடைமையை சரிபார்கவும் விவரமானதொரு முறைமை இங்கே பயன்படுத்தப்பட்டுள்ளது. எனவே TROP ICSU தரவுகளை பயன்படுத்தினால் ஆசிரியர்கள் தங்கள் கற்பிக்கும் திறனின் தரத்தை உயர்த்திக்கொள்வதோடு மாணவர்களிடையே பருவநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்த விழிப்புணர்வை பிரதான பாடத்திட்டத்திலிருந்து வழுவாமலேயே ஏற்படுத்த முடியும்.  

 

திட்டத்தின் முதல் கட்டத்தில், இந்தியா, பூட்டான், தென் ஆப்பிரிக்கா, உகாண்டா, எகிப்து, பிரான்ஸ், ஆஸ்திரி, இங்கிலாந்து, சீனா மற்றும் ஆஸ்திரேலியாவிலுள்ள ஆசிரியர்கள் மற்றும் பயிற்றுநர்களிற்கு பயிலரங்குகளை இத்திட்டக்குழு நடத்தியுள்ளது. இப்பயிலரங்குகளில், இக்கல்வித்தரவுகளை உள்ளூர் பயிற்றுநர்கள் மதிப்பிட்டுள்ளனர். சில இடங்களில் பருவநிலை மாற்ற நிபுணர்களும் இப்பயிலரங்குகளில் கலந்துகொண்டு தங்கள் கருத்துக்களைத் தெரிவித்துள்ளனர். யு.என்.சி.சி: லேர்ன(UNCC: Learn,), உலக காலநிலை அமைப்பு ( World Meteorological Organization (WMO)) மற்றும் உலக பருவநிலை ஆய்வுத் திட்டம் (World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)) போன்ற ஐக்கிய நாடுகள் சபையின் பல அமைப்புகளுடன் வலுவான இணைவாக்கம் இருப்பதால், இந்த அமைப்புகள் படிப்பினைத் திட்டங்கள் மற்றும் கற்பிக்கும் கருவிகளை சரிபார்பதோடு மட்டும் நில்லாமல்  இந்த முழு திட்டத்தையுமே ஆதரித்துள்ளன. ஐக்கிய நாடுகள் சபையின் தலைமை பணியிடம் அமைந்துள்ள நியு யார்கில் 2019 ஆம் ஆண்டு மே 14-15 தேதிகளில் நிகழ்ந்த UN STI Forum 2019 எனும் ஐக்கிய நாடுகளின் அறிவியல் கல்வி கூட்டத்திலும், ஜூலை 11 2019இல் மீண்டும் ஐக்கிய நாடுகள் சபையின் தலைமை பணியிடத்தில் நிகழ்ந்த வளம்குன்றா வளர்ச்சிக்கான பெருநிலை அரசியல் மன்றம் 2019 (High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development 2019 (HLPF 2019)) எனும் கூட்டத்தில் “பருநிலை மாற்றம் மற்றும் சுற்றுச்சூழல் குறித்த தரமான கல்வியை நோக்கிய அணுகுமுறைகள் மற்றும்  வழக்கங்கள்” ("Practices and Approaches onquality education towards environment and climate action) எனும் அமர்விலும் இத்திட்டக்குழு அவர்களின் கல்வியியல் முயற்சிகளை விவாதிக்கும் வாய்ப்பை பெற்றுள்ளனர். மேலும் போலாந்தில் நடைபெற்ற COP 24 மாநாடு மற்றும் பல பருவநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்த கலந்தாய்வுகள், ஆசிரியர்கள்/ பயிற்றுநர்களுக்கான பயிலரங்குகளில் இத்திட்டக்குழுவினர் கலந்துகொண்டுள்ளனர்.

 

பருவநிலை மாற்றம் குறித்த அக்கறை பலரிடையே குறிப்பாக இளைஞர்களிடையே உலகெங்கும் அதிகரித்துவரும் இச்சூழலில், இத்தாலி போன்ற பல நாடுகள் வெளிப்படையாக பருவநிலை மாற்றம் அனைத்துக் குழந்தையின் கல்வித்திட்டத்திலும் இருக்க வேண்டும் என குரலெழுப்பும் இந்த நிலையில் TROP ICSU சரியான நேரத்தில் துவக்கப்பட்ட ஒரு முன்னெடுப்பாகவே திகழ்கிறது.

TROP ICSU திட்டத்தின் முதல் கட்டம் (2017-2019) சர்வதேச அறிவியல் மன்றத்தின் (International Science Council (ISC)) மூவாண்டு நிதிநல்கையினால் ஆதரிக்கப்பட்டுள்ளது. 

 

 

Credits

TROP ICSU Project Summary/Concept Note, Chemistry Lesson Plan on Carbon Compounds, Physics Lesson Plan on Blackbody Radiation by Gubbi Labs, India

 

जगभरातील सर्व अभ्यासक्रमांत वातावरण-बदल शिक्षणाचा समावेश

  • वातावरण बदल आजच्या काळातील अत्यंत महत्त्वाच्या प्रश्न आहे
  • वातावरण बदल जगातील सर्व देशांच्या व तेथील नागरिकांच्या समन्यायी व धारणीय विकासास बाधक ठरत आहे
  • ह्यावर उपाय करण्यासाठी जनतेमधे ह्या बद्दलची जागरुकता असणे आवश्यक आहे
  • वातावरण बदलांमुळे होणाऱ्या दुष्परिणामांपासून बचाव करण्यासाठी उपाय स्थानिक असतील पण सार्वत्रिक विज्ञानावर आधारित असतील
  • वातावरण बदल शिक्षणाचा औपचारिक शिक्षणात समावेश केल्यामुळे सध्याच्या व भावी पिढ्यांमध्ये, वातावरण बदलांना सामोरे जाण्यासाठी व त्या बदलांशी जुळवून घेण्यासाठी आवश्यक असलेली लवचिकता व स्थानिक उपाय शोधण्याची कौशल्ये विकसित करणे शक्य होईल. 

टीआरओपी आयसीएसयू (TROP ICSU) (https://climatescienceteaching.org/https://tropicsu.org/) प्रकल्पाचे उद्दिष्ट शालेय व महाविद्यालयीन शिक्षणाच्या गाभ्यामधे वातावरण बदलांशी निगडित विषयांचा समावेश करून विद्यार्थ्याना वातावरण बदलांची कारणे व परिणाम यांच्याबद्दल जाणीव करून देणे असे आहे. संपूर्ण मानवतेनी त्यांच्या क्षमता, कौशल्ये आणि महत्वाकांक्षा वातावरण बदलांच्या समस्येवर केंद्रित कराव्यात ह्यासाठी ज्ञानाचे लोकशाही-करण करण्याच्या कल्पना पुढे आली आहे. टीआरओपी आयसीएसयू प्रकल्प हा त्याचाच एक भाग आहे.  

शालेय व महाविद्यालयीन शिक्षणाच्या गाभ्यामध्ये वातावरण बदलाशी निगडित विषयांचा समावेश करण्यात यावा यासाठी निवडक व विधिग्राह्य शैक्षणिक संसाधनांचा विश्वसनीय स्रोत उपलब्ध करण्या भोवती हा प्रकल्प केंद्रित आहे. असे केल्याने कुठल्याही विद्या-शाखेच्या विद्यार्थ्याना वातावरण बदलांची कारणे व परिणाम यांच्याबद्दल माहिती मिळणे शक्य होईल व वातावरण बदलाच्या सार्वत्रिक समस्येवर नवकारी स्थानिक उपाययोजना राबवण्यासाठी आवश्यक कौशल्ये विकसित करणे शक्य होईल. 

म्हणजेच, दर्जेदार शिक्षण (लक्ष्य ४) व वातावरण कारवाई (लक्ष्य १३) या संयुक्त राष्ट्राच्या धारणीय प्रगती लक्ष्यांशी टीआरओपी आयसीएसयू प्रकल्प संरेखित आहे. 

 

ह्या प्रकल्पाची लक्ष्ये गाठण्या साठी, भारतीय विज्ञान शिक्षण आणि संशोधन संस्था पुणे येथील टीआरओपी आयसीएसयू प्रकल्प अंमलबजावणी गटाने जगभरातील शैक्षणिक संसाधनांची तुलना करून, निवडक संसाधनांचा संग्रह विकसित करून, तो विधिग्राह्य केला आहे. वातावरण बदलांशी निगडित उदाहरणे, दाखला अभ्यास (केस स्टडी) आणि उपक्रम असलेल्या ह्या संग्रहाचा उपयोग वातावरण बदलांशी निगडित शाखा-निहाय विषय शिकवण्यासाठी होईल. शिकवत असलेल्या अभ्यासक्रमात वातावरण बदलाचे शिक्षण एकत्रित करण्याचा नवीन शैक्षणिक दृष्टिकोन ह्या प्रकल्पाने दर्शविला आहे. ह्या प्रकल्पाचा भाग म्हणून, ह्या गटाने मोठ्या संख्येने शैक्षणिक संसाधने (काहींमध्ये टप्प्या-टप्प्याने सविस्तरपणे पाठ आराखडाही आहे) विकसित केली आहेत. शालेय व महाविद्यालयीन शिक्षणाच्या गाभ्यामध्ये वातावरण बदलाशी निगडित विषयांचा समावेश करण्यासाठी हा संकल्पनेचा पुरावा (प्रूफ ऑफ कन्सेप्ट) आहे. 

अभ्यासक्रमातील विषयांशी वातावरण बदलांतील विषय सहजपणे एकत्रित व्हावेत व वैज्ञानिक दृष्ट्या ते विधिग्राह्य असावेत यासाठी सविस्तर पद्धतीने हे विषय मांडले आहेत. टीआरओपी आयसीएसयू च्या शैक्षणिक संसाधनांमुळे शिक्षकांना शिक्षणाचा दर्जा तर वाढवता येईलच, शिवाय सध्याच्या अभ्यासक्रमाला धक्का न लावता मुलांमध्ये  वातावरण बदलाबाबतची जागरुकता वाढवणे शक्य होईल.  

प्रकल्पाच्या पहिल्या टप्प्यात प्रकल्प अंमलबजावणी गटाने भारत, भुतान, दक्षिण अफ्रिका, युगांडा, इजिप्त, फ्रांस, ऑस्ट्रिया, यू.के., चीन व आस्ट्रेलिया येथे शिक्षकांसाठी  कार्यशाळा घेतल्या. ह्या कार्यशाळांमधे, स्थानिक शिक्षकांनी ही शैक्षणिक संसाधने किती प्रभावी आहेत याचे मूल्यमापन केले. काही ठिकाणी वातावरण बदल ह्या विषयातील तज्ज्ञांनी उपक्रमात भाग घेऊन अभिप्राय नोंदवले. यूएनसीसी लर्न (UNCC: Learn), जागतिक हवामान विज्ञान संघटना (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)), जागतिक हवामान संशोधन कार्यक्रम (World Climate Research Programme (WCRP)) या व अश्या सारख्या संयुक्त राष्ट्राच्या संघटनांशी सहयोग प्रस्थापित केला गेला आहे. ह्या संघटनांनी पाठ आराखडा व शैक्षणिक साधने विधिग्राह्य तर केलीच पण संपूर्ण प्रकल्पाला पुष्टी दिली. प्रकल्पाच्या चमूला, १४-१५ मे २०१९ रोजी न्यूयॉर्क येथील संयुक्त राष्ट्राच्या मुख्यालयात झालेल्या संयुक्त राष्ट्राच्या चौथ्या विज्ञान, तंत्रज्ञान व नविनीकरण मंच २०१९  (4th UN STI Forum 2019) येथे, त्यांच्या ह्या शैक्षणिक कामाबद्दल सादरीकरण करायची संधी मिळालि.  ११ जुलै २०१९ रोजी झालेल्या शाश्वत विकासासाठी उच्चस्तरीय राजकीय मंच २०१९ च्या “वातावरण व हवामान कारवाई विषयी दर्जेदार शिक्षणासाठी प्रणाली व पद्धती (Practices and Approaches on quality education towards environment and climate action)” ह्या सत्रातही त्यांनी आपले काम सादर केले. ह्या खेरीज ह्या चमूने पोलंड येथील सीओपी २४ व शिक्षक व वातावरण-तज्ज्ञांसाठी असलेल्या इतर कार्यशाळा व परिषदांमध्येही भाग घेतला.

जगभरात, विशेषत: तरूण मुलांमध्ये, वातावरण बदलांविषयी काळजी वाढत आहे. तसेच इटली सारख्या देशांनी वातावरण बदल हा विषय प्रत्येक मुलाच्या अभ्यासक्रमात समाविष्ट केला आहे. ह्या पार्श्वभूमीवर टीआरओपी आयसीएसयू प्रकल्पाची वेळ अगदी योग्य आहे.

टीआरओपी आयसीएसयू प्रकल्पाच्या पहिला टप्प्याला (२०१७-२०१९) आंतरराष्ट्रीय विज्ञान परिषदेच्या (International Science Council (ISC)) तीन वर्षांच्या अनुदानाद्वारे अर्थसहाय्य मिळाले आहे. 

Credits

TROP ICSU Project Summary/Concept Note, Chemistry Lesson Plan on Carbon Compounds, Physics Lesson Plan on Blackbody Radiation by Gubbi Labs, India

 

दुनिया भर के पाठ्यक्रम में जलवायु परिवर्तन पर शिक्षा

  • जलवायु परिवर्तन हमारे समय के सबसे महत्वपूर्ण मुद्दों में से एक है।
  • यह सभी देशों और उनके नागरिकों के दीर्घकालिक और न्यायसंगत विकास को प्रभावित करता है।
  • इसके समाधान के लिए आवाम को मुद्दों के प्रति जागरूक होना आवश्यक है।
  • जलवायु परिवर्तन के प्रभावों को कम करने के उपायों में ऐसे समाधान शामिल होंगे जो स्थानीय रूप से निहित हैं लेकिन वैश्विक विज्ञान पर आधारित हैं।
  • औपचारिक शिक्षा प्रणाली में जलवायु परिवर्तन की शिक्षा का शामिल किया जाना जलवायु परिवर्तन को समझने, कम करने, और लड़ने के लिए स्थानीय रूप से प्रासंगिक समाधान तय करने के लिए आवश्यक योग्यता के साथ वर्तमान और भविष्य की पीढ़ियों को लैस कर सकता है।

TROP ICSU परियोजना (https://climatescienceteaching.org/; https://tropicsu.org/) का उद्देश्य है विद्यालय और स्नातक के स्तर पर जलवायु परिवर्तन से संबंधित विषयों को शामिल करना, जिससे इसके कारणों और प्रभावों के प्रति छात्रों के बीच जागरूकता बढ़ाई जा सके। TROP ICSU परियोजना ज्ञान के लोकतंत्रीकरण की दृष्टि का हिस्सा है, ताकि पूरी मानवता अपनी प्रतिभा, कौशल, और महत्वाकांक्षा को जलवायु परिवर्तन की समस्याओं को दूर करने के लिए केंद्रित कर सकें।

इस परियोजना का मुख्य उद्देश्य मान्य शैक्षणिक संसाधनों का एक विश्वसनीय स्रोत प्रदान करना है जो जलवायु परिवर्तन सम्बंधित विषयों को औपचारिक शिक्षा प्रणाली के मुख्य पाठ्यक्रम में एकीकृत करे। यह पद्धति सुनिश्चित करेगी कि सभी छात्र अपने विषयों/अध्ययन के क्षेत्रों के साथ जलवायु परिवर्तन के कारणों और प्रभावों से अवगत होंगे, और इस वैश्विक समस्या के उन्नतिशील स्थानीय समाधान विकसित करने के कौशल से लैस होंगे।

अतएव, TROP ICSU परियोजना संयुक्त राष्ट्र के सतत विकास लक्ष्यों (SDGs) में उत्कृष्ट शिक्षा (लक्ष्य 4) और जलवायु कार्रवाई (लक्ष्य 13) के साथ श्रेणीबद्ध है।

परियोजना के इन लक्ष्यों की प्राप्ति के लिए भारतीय विज्ञान शिक्षा और अनुसंधान संस्थान (IISER), पुणे  आधारित TROP ICSU परियोजना कार्यान्वयन टीम ने दुनिया भर के शिक्षण संसाधनों का एक भंडार विकसित, समानुक्रमित, स्थापित, और मान्य किया है जिसका शिक्षकों द्वारा जलवायु परिवर्तन से संबंधित उदाहरणों, केस अध्ययनों और गतिविधियों का उपयोग करके अनुशासन-विशिष्ट विषयों को पढ़ाने के लिए उपयोग किया जा सकता है। इस परियोजना ने मौजूदा पाठ्यक्रम में जलवायु परिवर्तन शिक्षा को एकीकृत करने के नए शैक्षणिक दृष्टिकोण को प्रदर्शित किया है। इस परियोजना के अंतर्गत, टीम ने जलवायु परिवर्तन सम्बंधित विषयों को मुख्य पाठ्यक्रम में एकीकृत करने की अवधारणा के प्रमाण के रूप में बड़ी संख्या में शिक्षण संसाधन (कुछ विस्तृत, चरण-दर-चरण पाठ योजनाओं के साथ) विकसित किए हैं। पाठयक्रम विषयों में जलवायु परिवर्तन विषयों की वैज्ञानिक वैधता और निर्बाध एकीकरण को सुनिश्चित करने के लिए एक विस्तृत कार्यप्रणाली अपनाई गई है। इस प्रकार TROP ICSU शैक्षिक संसाधनों का उपयोग कर शिक्षक मुख्य पाठ्यक्रम से हटे बिना छात्रों में जलवायु परिवर्तन के प्रति जागरूकता बढ़ाने के साथ शिक्षा की गुणवत्ता भी बढ़ा पाएंगे।

परियोजना के पहले चरण में टीम ने भारत, भूटान, दक्षिण अफ्रीका, युगांडा, मिस्र, फ्रांस, ऑस्ट्रिया, ब्रिटेन, चीन और ऑस्ट्रेलिया में शिक्षकों और शिक्षाविदों के लिए कार्यशालाएं आयोजित की हैं। इन कार्यशालाओं में स्थानीय शिक्षकों ने इन शिक्षण संसाधनों की प्रभावशीलता का मूल्यांकन किया। कुछ जगहों पर जलवायु परिवर्तन विशेषज्ञों ने भी कार्यशालाओं में भाग लिया और अपने अपने फीडबैक दिए। इसके अलावा संयुक्त राष्ट्र के संगठन, जैसे UNCC: Learn, विश्व मौसम विज्ञान संगठन (WMO), और विश्व जलवायु अनुसंधान कार्यक्रम (WCRP) के साथ मजबूत सहकारिता स्थापित की गई है, जिन्होंने न केवल पाठ योजनाओं और शिक्षण उपकरणों को मान्यता दी है, बल्कि इस पूरी परियोजना समर्थन भी किया है। इस प्रोजेक्ट की टीम को 14-15 मई 2019 को न्यूयॉर्क में संयुक्त राष्ट्र के मुख्यालय में चौथे संयुक्त राष्ट्र एसटीआई फोरम 2019 के दौरान विज्ञान शिक्षा के कार्यक्रम में अपने शैक्षिक प्रयासों को प्रस्तुत करने का अवसर मिला। इसके अलावा, दीर्घकालिक विकास के उच्चस्तरीय राजनीतिक मंच 2019 (HLRF 2019) पर 11 जुलाई 2019 को संयुक्त राष्ट्र के मुख्यालय में आयोजित "पर्यावरण और जलवायु कार्रवाई के लिए गुणवत्तापूर्ण शिक्षा पर अभ्यास और दृष्टिकोण" नामक एक सत्र में टीम ने अपनी प्रस्तुति दी। साथ ही, टीम ने पोलैंड में आयोजित COP 24 के दौरान शिक्षकों और जलवायु विशेषज्ञों के सम्मेलनों और कार्यशालाओं में जलवायु शिक्षा कार्यक्रमों में भी भाग लिया।

TROP ICSU एक बहुत ही सामयिक पहल है, जैसा कि दुनिया भर के लोगों (विशेष रूप से युवाओं) में चिंता के बढ़ते स्तर से देखा जा सकता है। साथ ही कुछ देशों द्वारा उठाए गए कदमों में भी, जैसे इटली, जहाँ हर बच्चे के पाठ्यक्रम में जलवायु परिवर्तन पर शिक्षा को शामिल किया गया है।

TROP ICSU परियोजना (2017-2019) के पहले चरण को अंतर्राष्ट्रीय विज्ञान परिषद (ISC) से तीन साल के अनुदान द्वारा समर्थित किया गया था।

 

Credits

TROP ICSU Project Summary/Concept Note, Chemistry Lesson Plan on Carbon Compounds, Physics Lesson Plan on Blackbody Radiation by Gubbi Labs, India

 

Undergraduate Humanities (Cultural Studies, Literature, History) teacher, you can use this lesson plan to teach critical analysis of a comprehensive text in climate literature.

Dipesh Chakrabarty, a Lawrence A. Kimpton Distinguished Service Professor of History, South Asian Languages, Civilizations and Law, at the University of Chicago, authored a seminal essay, ‘The Climate of History: Four Theses’ in 2009. This lesson plan will enable your students to critically analyze this text and acquaint themselves with the field of environmental history.

The use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Humanities (Cultural Studies, Literature, History).

This is a teacher-contributed lesson plan by Dr Maya Dodd, FLAME University, Pune, India.

Want to know more about how to contribute? Contact us.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. How does the crisis of climate change spell the collapse of the distinction between Natural History and Human History?
  2. What is the idea of the Anthropocene and how does it qualify humanist theories of freedom?
  3. How do you reconcile the global histories of capital and the species history of humans in the Anthropocene?
  4. How does climate change challenge our understanding of the human universal or collectivity?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Humanities (Cultural Studies, Literature, History)
Topic(s) in Discipline Human History, Environmental History,

Natural History, Anthropocene, History of Capital,

Species History

Climate Topic Climate and the Anthroposphere

Policies, Politics and Environmental Governance

Introduction to Climate Change

Location Global, India
Language(s) English
Access Online, some resources are available offline
Approximate
Time Required
60 min

Contents

Reading

(40 min)

An essay that discusses the idea that the discipline of history to date has not adequately addressed the environmental history of the planet.

Go to the Reading

Video micro-lecture 

(~5 min)

A video micro-lecture that summarizes the key points of the four theses discussed in the above-mentioned essay.

Go to the Video

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion

  1. Begin your classroom session by introducing Dipesh Chakrabarty, the author of the essay ‘The Climate of History: Four Theses’, the text to be critically analyzed.
  2. Then ask your students to read the introduction to the essay.
  3. Discuss the questions raised by the author about the environmental history of the planet reported to date using the following points:
    1. Why the discipline of history itself is unable to capture what is significantly different about what is called the Anthropocene
    2. Definition of Anthropocene and how humans have become geological agents
    3. The same faculty that allows us to picture the past also allows us to imagine the future
  4. Now direct your students to read the essay closely.
  5. At the end of every section, discuss the over-arching arguments presented by the author.

Go to the essay 'The Climate of History: Four Theses

 

Step 2: Extend understanding and summarize the key points of the essay

  1. Play the video micro-lecture, 'A Commentary on ‘The Climate of History: Four theses' by Dr Maya Dodd, FLAME University, India to focus your students’ attention on the key points/arguments presented by the author of the essay.
  2. Pause the video micro-lecture at will to allow your students to re-visit the text and to extend their understanding of the essay through a classroom discussion using the following points:
  3. Thesis 1 The distinction between natural and human history is a distinction that has to be dropped in this new era
  4. The assumption was that all history was the history of human affairs but we (humans) are now a part of the environment and this collapse that separated the natural from the man-made worlds requires a unity now in order to fully understand what the Anthropocene era entails.
  5. Thesis 2 talks about the emergence of humans as a geological force and how this “severely qualifies humanist histories of modernity/ globalization”
  6. Has human freedom been placed under a cloud in the era of the Anthropocene?
  7. Thesis 3 The Anthropocene requires us to put global histories of capital in conversation with the species history of humans
  8. The argument that we must mix these two histories comes from the fact that capitalism has also always changed but this is also to be seen as a species history. In modernity and early modernity and history needs to be viewed not in this short time frame and to think in species terms changes the way in which the discipline itself functions.
  9. In the fourth thesis we can probe the limits of historical understanding by the cross hatching of species history and capital history.

 

Go to the video micro-lecture, 'A Commentary on ‘The Climate of History: Four theses'

As a High School or Undergraduate Physics or Earth Sciences teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to teach about the characteristics, properties and types of waves and oscillations, and how atmospheric wave dynamics possibly influence extreme weather events.

A wave is a continuous oscillation of a field about its equilibrium value. The wave traverses through the medium but when some parts of the medium are fixed then the waves reflect at this fixed point, become stationary, and are called standing waves. Standing waves occur in the atmosphere very often, due to heating in the tropical regions, land surface features like mountains, and land-water temperature gradients. Recent research suggests that the interaction of standing and travelling atmospheric Rossby waves could result in extreme weather events, such as heat waves and floods.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Physics or Earth Sciences.

Teacher-contributed lesson plan by Joy Merwin Monteiro, India.

Want to know more about how to contribute? Contact us.

Simple Harmonic Motion

Rossby Waves

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. Distinguish between simple harmonic motion and waves.
  1. What are standing waves? Describe their characteristics.
  1. What are Rossby waves and how do they influence Earth’s weather patterns?
  1. How could the interference of atmospheric Rossby waves cause extreme weather events?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Physics, Earth Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Waves, Oscillations, Simple Harmonic Motion

Stationary Waves, Standing Waves, Rossby Waves

Wave Interference, Wave Forcing, Teleconnections

Climate Topic Climate and the Atmosphere
Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline, An interactive tool available in several languages
Approximate
Time Required
40-50 min

Contents

Reading

(~35 min)

 

A reading that introduces the topic of waves and oscillations in detail and describes their properties using graphical representations and mathematical expressions.

Go to the Reading

Video

(~13.5 min)

A video that describes how standing waves are formed due to fixed points in a medium.

Go to the Video

Video micro-lecture

(4 min)

A video micro-lecture that describes what Rossby waves are and how their interference by standing waves in the atmosphere influence mid-latitudinal weather conditions and in some cases, extreme weather events.

Go to the Video

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion

Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is the oscillation of a single particle about a point of equilibrium. Usually, particles don’t exist by themselves and are part of a medium such as gas, liquid or solid. If some particles are provided with the energy to perform SHM, they transfer this energy to their neighboring particles, which then perform simple harmonic motion SHM themselves. This transfer of energy continues until most of the particles in the medium are in SHM. If there is no continuous source of energy, the particles initially performing SHM come back to rest, but the energy gets transferred. This phenomenon of energy transfer from one particle to its neighbor is a wave. The particles themselves do not move very far, but the energy contained in them travels a very long distance.

Thus, a wave is a continuous oscillation of a field about its equilibrium value. This field could be a physical medium such as water, ground, air or it could be electric and magnetic fields. In the former case, the wave is called a mechanical wave and in the latter case, the wave is called an electromagnetic wave.

Use the textbook chapter, ‘8.1: Introduction to Waves’ by Dina Zhabinskaya et al., LibreTextsTM to teach your students the topic of waves and oscillations in detail.

  1. Navigate through the different sections of this chapter to teach your students different aspects of waves- their properties and characteristics.
  2. Use the in-text examples and exercises to explain the various concepts better.

Go to the Reading

 

Step 2: Extend understanding of the characteristics of waves

The speed with which a wave traverses a medium is determined by the properties of the medium. If a wave passes through two different media, the direction of propagation changes as it passes from one medium to another. This change in direction is proportional to the angle at which the wave is incident at the interface between the two media. This turning of waves is called refraction.

It is also possible that the wave cannot pass through the interface between the media and instead is “turned back” into the medium from which it came. This “turning back” of waves is called reflection. If the medium through which a mechanical wave is passing is perfectly elastic, then the medium itself does not absorb any of the energy transmitted by the wave. Most real media are not perfectly elastic, and hence the energy transmitted by the wave reduces as the wave passes through the medium. This phenomenon is called absorption of the wave by the medium.

When some parts of the medium are fixed- for example, if you tie the ends of a rope using nails- then the waves reflect at this fixed point and become stationary. This is called a standing wave.

Use the video, ‘Standing waves on strings’ by Khan Academy, to explain what standing waves are, how they are formed and what their characteristics are.

  1. Explain how these standing waves interfere with the travelling waves and show altered net wavelengths and amplitudes.
  2. Use the video to emphasize on the different aspects of superimposition of these waves due to interference such as destructive and constructive interference.

Go to the Video

 

Step 3: Discuss an example of wave interference and its consequences in Earth’s atmosphere

  1. Use the video micro-lecture, ‘Rossby waves and extreme weather’ by Kai Kornhuber, Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, to introduce your students to atmospheric Rossby waves.
  2. Describe, using the video, how the free-flowing Rossby waves influence weather between the Arctic and the mid-latitudinal regions.
  3. Discuss the interference of the free-flowing Rossby waves with naturally occurring standing waves formed due to mountain ranges and land-water temperature gradients.
  4. Finally, explain how this interaction of standing and travelling waves can also result in extreme weather events, such as heat waves and floods.
  5. Emphasize on the increased frequency of such events and discuss how the interference of the Rossby waves could be responsible for this aspect of climate change.

Go to the Video

 

As a high school or undergraduate Biological Sciences teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to teach about CRISPR: Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats, a new gene editing technology that could enable certain species to adapt to the impacts of climate change.

This lesson plan includes resources that teach about gene editing using the CRISPR-Cas 9 pathway in bacteria. This pathway is a part of the adaptive immunity against phage infection in bacteria. It can be engineered to be used as a gene editing tool in living organisms. This lesson plan includes case studies that show how CRISPR gene editing technology can be used as a climate adaptation strategy.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Biological Sciences.

Teacher-contributed lesson plan by Dr Sneha Bhogale, Pune, India.

Want to know more about how to contribute? Contact us.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is the function of CRISPR in bacteria? Describe the main components of the CRISPR-Cas9 system.
  2. Describe the two main DNA repair mechanisms in a cell.
  3. Explain how the CRISPR gene editing technique exploits the cell’s DNA repair system to introduce targeted mutations.
  4. How can CRISPR gene editing help plant breeding programs to adapt to the effects of climate change? Elaborate using a suitable example.
  5. Discuss the use of CRISPR technology as a climate adaptation strategy to conserve coral reefs.

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Biological Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Gene Editing, CRISPR, CRISPR-Cas9 Pathway

DNA Repair Mechanisms, Double Stranded Breaks (DSBs)

Non- Homologous End Joining (NHEJ)

Homologous Recombination (HR)

Targeted Mutations, Nucleases

Climate Topic Climate and the Biosphere

Climate Mitigation and Adaptation

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online
Approximate
Time Required
50-60 min

Contents

Video

(~4 min)

A video to introduce the CRISPR-Cas9 pathway in bacteria and the CRISPR gene editing technique.

Go to the Video

Visualization (35 – 40 min) An interactive visualization to teach about the DNA repair mechanisms in cells and how the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing technique can be used to exploit these repair systems to achieve targeted mutations in living cells. A section in the tool also discusses some applications of this gene editing technology.

Go to the Visualization

Video and Reading

(~3 min + 5 min)

Case studies to demonstrate the use of CRISPR gene editing technology as a climate adaptation strategy in living organisms.

Video is here

Reading is here

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion

  1. Begin with introducing what gene editing is and explain how it is different from genetic engineering- Gene editing, is a process in which DNAis inserted, deleted, modified or replaced at a specific site in the genome of a living organism. Genetic engineering, on the other hand randomly inserts or deletes genetic material to introduce mutations.
  2. In gene editing, nucleases/ molecular scissors are used which introduce a double stranded break (DSB) in the DNA at specific locations after which DNA repair mechanisms of the cell take over resulting in targeted mutations (edits).
  3. Then, briefly discuss the commonly used nucleases- meganucleases, Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector-based nucleases (TALENS) and CRISPR- that are used for gene editing.
  4. Emphasize that this lesson plan will focus on the CRISPR-Cas9 system of gene editing, as it is reported in recent times to be more efficient and effective than the others.
  5. Use this animated video, ‘Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9’, narrated by Feng Zhang, McGovern Institute of Brain Research, MIT, to introduce the topic of gene editing using CRISPR-Cas9 system and to briefly describe the structural components of the CRISPR-Cas9 pathway.

Go to the Video

 

Step 2: Extend understanding of the CRISPR-Cas9 pathway and CRISPR gene editing using an interactive visualization

  1. Use the interactive visualization, ‘CRISPR-Cas9 Mechanism & Application’ by Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) BioInteractive, to enable your students to visualize how the CRISPR-Cas9 technology works at the molecular level and to explore its different components.
  2. Start by launching the ‘interactive’ component of the visualization tool.
  3. Navigate through the visualization to sequentially describe the gene-editing events of targeting and binding of the CRISPR-Cas9 complex to the target DNA, cleaving or breaking of the DNA at the target location and repairing of the DNA to introduce the desired mutation.
  4. Use the ‘explore’ button at every step to describe the different molecular components involved in the pathway.
  5. Use the tab, ‘How it’s used’ to view 20 short videos that explain how CRISPR gene editing technology can be used to achieve different results in its applications in science and industry.

Go to the visualization

 

Step 3: Discuss two case studies where CRISPR gene editing has been used as a climate adaptation strategy

  1. Use the video, ‘Gene editing yields tomatoes that flower and ripen weeks earlier’ by Zachary Lippman, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL), to describe his use of CRISPR gene editing in two varieties of tomato plants to make them flower and ripen earlier than usual.
  2. Use the video to explain how this approach is useful to obtain faster and higher yields of the tomato crop.
  3. Discuss, using the video how this will also enable plants to be grown in higher latitudes, thereby offsetting crop loss, if any, due to global warming.
  4. To enable better understanding of Dr Lippman’s work, direct your students to listen to a CSHL Base Pairs podcast, link to which is available in the additional resources section of this lesson plan.
  5. Use the reading, ‘CRISPR used to genetically edit coral’ by Hanae Armitage, Office of Communication, Stanford Medicine, to explain the proof-of-principle study published in PNAS by Phillip Cleves et al. (2018).
  6. Use this brief communication to explain how this work could allow researchers to use the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing tool to identify and knock-out the coral genes responsible for coral bleaching due to ocean acidification.
  7. Discuss how this technique can thus be useful for coral conservation by building climate-resilient corals.

Go to the Video

Go to the Reading

As a high school or undergraduate Biological Sciences teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to teach about evolutionary adaptations in animals due to climate change.

Evolutionary Adaptation is the morphological or physiological adjustment of organisms to their environment to improve their chances of survival. With climate change associated altered precipitation patterns, rising sea-levels, and extreme weather events, ecosystems across the globe are being disrupted. This lesson plan includes resources that explain how climate change is affecting many animals species and how they are adapting to their changed environments.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Biological Sciences.

Teacher-contributed lesson plan by Dr Rajendra Phartyal and Dr Mansi Verma, Sri Venkateswara College (University of Delhi), India.

Want to know more about how to contribute? Contact us.

The brown butterfly from Africa

American Pika

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is evolutionary adaptation? Give suitable examples.
  1. How is adaptation different from phenotypic plasticity, in response to environmental changes?
  1. How is climate change influencing evolutionary adaptations in living organisms?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Undergraduate
Discipline Biological Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Evolutionary Adaptations, Natural Selection

Phenotypic Variations, Genetic Variations

Gene Frequency, Phenotypic Plasticity

Morphological or Physiological Traits, Epigenetic Factors

Climate Topic Climate and the Biosphere
Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, some resources are available offline
Approximate
Time Required
40-70 min

Contents

Reading

(10 min)

A reading to introduce the topic of adaptation in living organisms.

Go to the Reading

Video

(~5 min)

A video that briefly explains how and why animals are adapting in response to climate change.

Go to the Video

Reading

(15 min)

A reading to explain how climate change induced evolutionary adaptations occur in several animal species.

Go to the Reading

Optional: Teaching Module

(2 sessions of 35 min each)

A detailed case study of the willow leaf beetle’s adaptation in North America to a warming climate.

Go to the Teaching Module

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion

  1. Use the text, ‘Adaptation’ by Encyclopedia Britannica, to introduce the topic of adaptation in living organisms.
  2. Explain the need of several species to adapt to changing environments in order to improve their chances of survival.
  3. Describe the main characteristics of evolutionary adaptations.
  4. Discuss how natural selection works on variations in the species’ populations leading to- inherited morphological or physiological changes- adaptations.
  5. Emphasize on how it differs from other favorable circumstances like useful traits and phenotypic plasticity in organisms, in order to adjust to environmental aberrations.
  6. Finally, discuss the different examples given in text like the adaptation of the peppered moth in wing coloration from the beginning of the industrial revolution, to drive in the point of evolutionary adaptations.

Go to the Resource

 

Step 2: Introduce climate change as a driver of evolutionary adaptation in the wild

  1. Use the video, ‘Can wildlife adapt to climate change?’ by Erin Eastwood for TED-Ed, to briefly introduce your students to climate change as a driver of evolutionary adaptation in several animal species in the wild.
  2. Use the examples in the video to point out how climate change has led to disrupted ecosystems and changed environments for many animal species.
  3. Finally, emphasize on their need to adapt in order to improve their rates of survival.

This can be accessed at:

Go to the Video

 

Step 3: Improve understanding of climate change induced evolutionary adaptations

  1. Use the blog, ‘What Helps Animals Adapt (or Not) to Climate Change?’ by Renee Cho, Earth Institute, Columbia University to discuss the different aspects of evolutionary adaptations to climate change in animals.
  2. Explain how a warming climate forces animals to ‘move, adapt or die’.
  3. Use the text to discuss examples of organisms such as corals that show evidence of climate related adaptations.
  4. Describe the role of epigenetics in the phenotypic plasticity of several species that permits them to survive better in unfavorable conditions.
  5. Use the examples in the text to explain how this gives ‘time’ (to evolve) for several species to develop adaptations to changing environmental conditions.
  6. Also, discuss some examples where phenotypic plasticity is not an advantage.
  7. Finally, use the text to discuss how important it is to maintain large species populations and the biodiversity of Earth to allow for short time-scale evolutionary changes to adapt to a changing climate.

Go to the Resource

 

Step 4: (Optional) Use a case study of the willow leaf beetle to extend understanding of evolutionary adaptations to a warming climate

Use this teaching module, ‘Natural selection from the gene up: The work of Elizabeth Dahlhoff and Nathan Rank’ by the Understanding Evolution team, University of California Museum of Paleontology, to examine the research of these scientists to better understand how natural selection shapes the evolutionary process leading to adaptations in the willow leaf beetle, the subject of warming climatic conditions.

Note that this teaching module addresses 3 key questions (as given in the module):

  1. How do biologists study natural selection in the wild?
  2. How do differences at the genetic level translate into changes in populations and ecology?
  3. What are evolutionary trade-offs?

This module is designed such that one or more components may be used for your teaching.

  1. Navigate through the 12 pages of this module by using the tab in the upper right-hand corner of the webpage.
  2. Each page can be printed separately or viewed in print format.
  3. Download the student reading guide (link given at bottom of the webpage) and distribute copies to your students. Use this guide to channel your students through the different aspects of this study using an enquiry-based method (questions given in guide).
  4. Go to page 11 of the module for a list of discussion and extension questions. Use the list to encourage your students to elaborate on their understanding of evolutionary adaptations in a warming climate.

This can be accessed here

Educación sobre el cambio climático en los programas de estudio por todo el mundo

  1. El cambio climático es uno de los problemas más importantes de nuestros tiempos.
  2. Afecta el desarrollo sostenible y equitativo de todos los países y sus ciudadanos.
  3. Las soluciones requieren que la gente sea consciente de los problemas.
  4. Las medidas para mitigar los efectos del cambio climático supondrán soluciones con
    raíces locales pero que están basadas en la ciencia global.
  5. La incorporación de la educación sobre el cambio climático en el sistema educativo formal dotará a las generaciones presentes y futuras con las habilidades claves para determinar soluciones que sean localmente relevantes para la adaptación, la mitigación y la resiliencia al cambio climático.

El proyecto TROP ICSU (https://climatescienceteaching.org/; https://tropicsu.org/) pretende integrar temas relacionados con el cambio climático en el programa básico a niveles escolar yde grado para concienciar a los alumnos sobre las causas y los efectos del cambio climático. El proyecto TROP ICSU es parte de la visión de la democratización del conocimiento para que toda la humanidad invierta su talento, destrezas y ambición en una manera concentrada para abordar los problemas del cambio climático.

El objetivo principal del proyecto es proporcionar una fuente fiable de recursos educativos que sean conservados y validados, y que integren temas relacionados con el cambio climático en el programa básico del sistema educativo formal. Este enfoque garantiza que todos los alumnos, independientemente de su disciplina o campo de estudio, tomarán conciencia de las causas y los impactos del cambio climático y estarán dotados de las destrezas necesarias para desarrollar soluciones innovadoras a nivel local para este problema global.
Por consiguiente, el proyecto TROP ICSU se ajusta a los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible de la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para Educación de calidad (Objetivo 4) y para Acción por el clima (Objetivo 13).

Para conseguir las metas del proyecto, el equipo de la implementación del proyecto TROP ICSU, situado en Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune desarrolló, recopiló, conservó y validó un repositorio de recursos didácticos de todo el mundo
que los profesores pueden utilizar para enseñar los temas específicos por disciplina usando ejemplos, estudios de caso y actividades relacionadas al cambio climático. El proyecto demostró el novedoso enfoque pedagógico de incorporar la educación sobre el cambio
climático en el programa de estudio actual. Como parte de este proyecto, el equipo desarrolló un gran número de recursos didácticos (algunos con planes de estudio detallados paso por paso) como demostración conceptual de la incorporación de temas sobre el cambio climático en el programa básico. Se adoptó una metodología minuciosa para garantizar la validez científica y la incorporación fluida de los temas sobre el cambio climático en los temas curriculares. Por tanto, el uso de los recursos didácticos de TROP ICSU ayudará a los
profesores a mejorar la calidad del aprendizaje y al mismo tiempo concienciar a los estudiantes sobre el cambio climático sin desviarse del programa básico.

En la primera fase del proyecto, el equipo organizó talleres para profesores y docentes en la India, Bután, Sudáfrica, Uganda, Egipto, Francia, Austria, Reino Unido, China y Australia. En estos talleres, los docentes locales valoraron la eficacia de los recursos didácticos. En algunos sitios, expertos en el cambio climático también asistieron a los talleres y proporcionaron retroalimentación. Se establecieron fuertes colaboraciones continuas con organizaciones de la ONU como UNCC: Learn, la Organización Meteorológica Mundial (OMM), y el Programa Mundial de Investigaciones Climáticas (PMIC), que no solo validaron los planes de estudio y herramientas didácticas sino que también respaldaron el proyecto entero. El equipo del proyecto tuvo una oportunidad de presentar su trabajo educativo en los
eventos de educación científica durante el cuarto UN STI Forum 2019 el 14 y el 15 de mayo de 2019 en la sede de la ONU en Nueva York y también en High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development 2019 (HLPF 2019) en la sede de la ONU el 11 de julio de 2019 en
una sesión titulada " Practices and Approaches on quality education towards environment and climate action " (“Prácticas y enfoques en educación de calidad hacia la acción por el medio ambiente y el clima”). Además, el equipo participó en los eventos educativos sobre el clima en COP 24 en Polonia y en conferencias y talleres para docentes y expertos en el clima.

Como lo muestran los crecientes niveles de preocupación por todo el mundo, especialmente entre la gente joven, la iniciativa TROP ICSU es oportuna, junto con las medidas de algunos países como Italia para expresamente incluir el cambio climático en el programa de estudio de cada niño.

La primera fase del proyecto TROP ICSU (2017-2019) fue apoyada por una subvención de tres años por el International Science Council (ISC).

Credits

TROP ICSU Project Summary/Concept Note, Chemistry Lesson Plan on Carbon Compounds, Physics Lesson Plan on Blackbody Radiation by Suyash Daftardar, Freelance Translator, Pune, India.

 

പാഠ്യപദ്ധതിയിലൂടെ ആഗോള തലത്തിലുള്ള കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനത്തിലുള്ള പഠനം

 

  • കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനം ഇന്നത്തെ കാലത്ത് വളരെയധികം പ്രസക്തമായ ഒരു വിഷയമാണ്.
  • അത് രാജ്യങ്ങളുടേയും അവിടുത്തെ പൗരന്മാരുടേയും സുസ്ഥിരവും സന്തുലനാത്മകവുമായ വികസനത്തെ സാരമായി ബാധിക്കുന്നു.
  • ജനങ്ങളെ ഇതിന്റെ ദൂഷ്യഫലങ്ങളെ കുറിച്ച് ബോധവാന്മാരാക്കുക എന്നതാണ് ഇതിനുള്ള പരിഹാരം.
  • കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനത്തിന്റെ ആഘാതം ലഘൂകരിക്കുന്നതിന് പ്രാദേശികവും എന്നാൽ ശാസ്ത്രാധിഷ്ഠിതവുമായ പരിഹാരങ്ങൾ ഇതിൽ ഉൾപ്പെടുന്നു.
  • കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാന പഠനം സാമാന്യ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ സമ്പ്രദായത്തോട് കൂട്ടിച്ചേർക്കുന്നത് ഇപ്പോഴത്തെയും ഭാവിയിലേയും തലമുറകളെ കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനത്തോട് സമരസപ്പെടുന്നതിനും, ലഘൂകരിക്കുന്നതിനും, അതിജീവിക്കാനും പ്രാപ്തരാക്കും.

 

സ്കൂൾ, ബിരുദതലത്തിലെ കോർ കരിക്കുലത്തിൽ കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനവുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട വിഷയങ്ങൾ ഉൾപ്പെടുത്തി അതിന്റെ കാരണങ്ങളേയും, പരിണിതഫലങ്ങളേയും കുറിച്ചുള്ള അറിവ് വർദ്ധിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിനാണ് TROP ICSU project (https://climatescienceteaching.org/https://tropicsu.org/) ലക്ഷ്യമിടുന്നത്. ഈ പ്രോജക്ടിന്റെ പ്രധാന ഉദ്ദേശ്യം കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനം എന്ന വിഷയത്തെ സാമാന്യ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ സമ്പ്രദായത്തിലെ കോർ കരിക്കുലവുമായി സംയോജിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിനുതകുന്ന മൂല്യവത്തും സുസ്ഥിരവുമായ വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ സ്രോതസ്സായി വർത്തിക്കുക എന്നതാണ്. അറിവ് ജനകീയമാക്കുന്നതിലൂടെ മാനവരാശിക്ക് അവരുടെ പ്രാപ്തിയും, കഴിവും, ആഗ്രഹങ്ങളും കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനം നിമിത്തമുള്ള പ്രശ്നങ്ങളെ കൂടുതൽ കാര്യക്ഷമമായി അഭിമുഖീകരിക്കാനായി ഉപയോഗിക്കുവാനാകും.

 

എല്ലാ വിദ്യാർത്ഥികളേയും അവരുടെ പാഠ്യവിഷയത്തിനതീതമായി കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനത്തിന്റെ ഭവിഷ്യത്തുകളെ കുറിച്ച് ബോധവാന്മാരാക്കുന്നതിനും, അവരുടെ കഴിവുകളെ ഉപയോഗപ്പെടുത്തി ഈ ആഗോള പ്രശ്നത്തെ നേരിടാൻ നൂതന പരിഹാര മാർഗ്ഗങ്ങൾ രൂപപ്പെടുത്തുക എന്നതുമാണ്  ഈ പദ്ധതിയിലൂടെ ഉദ്ദേശിക്കുന്നത്.

 

അതുകൊണ്ട് തന്നെ TROP ICSU പ്രോജക്ട് ഐക്യരാഷ്ട്ര സഭയുടെ സുസ്ഥിര വികസന ലക്ഷ്യങ്ങളായ (SDGs) മൂല്യവർധിത വിദ്യാഭ്യാസം (Goal 4), കാലാവസ്ഥാ ആക്ഷൻ (Goal 13) എന്നിവയുമായി പാരസ്പര്യത്തിൽ നിൽക്കുന്നു.

 

പ്രോജക്ടിന്റെ തുടക്കമെന്നോണം ഇന്ത്യൻ ഇൻസ്റ്റിറ്റ്യൂട്ട് ഓഫ് സയൻസ് എഡ്യൂക്കേഷൻ ആന്റ് റിസർച്ച് (IISER), പൂണെയിലെ TROP ICSU പ്രോജക്ട് ഇംപ്ലിമെന്റേഷൻ ടീം വിഷയാധിഷ്ഠിതമായ പാഠഭാഗങ്ങളെ കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനവുമായി ബന്ധപ്പെട്ട ഉദാഹരണങ്ങൾ, കേസ് പഠനങ്ങൾ പ്രവർത്തനങ്ങൾ എന്നിവയിലൂടെ പഠിപ്പിക്കുന്നതിന് ഉപയുക്തമാകുന്ന തരത്തിൽ അധ്യാപന സഹായക സ്രോതസ്സ് ഉണ്ടാക്കി. കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനത്തെ നിലവിലുള്ള പാഠ്യപദ്ധതിയുമായി കൂട്ടിയിണക്കുന്നതെങ്ങനെ എന്നതിന് ഒരു ഉദാഹരണമാണ് ഈ പ്രോജെക്ട്. കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാന വിഷയങ്ങളെ കരിക്കുലം വിഷയങ്ങളുമായി കൂട്ടിയിണക്കുന്നതിന് ശാസ്ത്രീയ അടിസ്ഥാനമുള്ള ഒരു രീതിശാസ്ത്രം തന്നെ സ്വീകരിച്ചിട്ടുണ്ട്. കോർകരിക്കുലത്തിൽ നിന്നും വ്യതിചലിക്കാതെ തന്നെ കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനത്തെ കുറിച്ചുള്ള ബോധം കുട്ടികളിൽ വർദ്ധിപ്പിക്കാൻ TROP ICSU എഡ്യൂക്കേഷനൽ റിസോഴ്‌സസ് അധ്യാപകരെ സഹായിക്കുന്നു.

 

ഈ പ്രോജക്ടിന്റെ ആദ്യ ഘട്ടത്തിൽ ഇന്ത്യ, ഭൂട്ടാൻ, ദക്ഷിണാഫ്രിക്ക, ഉഗാണ്ട, ഈജിപ്ത്, ഫ്രാൻസ്, ആസ്ട്രിയ, UK, ചൈന, ആസ്ട്രേലിയ തുടങ്ങിയ രാജ്യങ്ങളിലെ അധ്യാപകർക്കും വിദ്യാഭ്യാസ വിചഷണർക്കും വർക്ക്‌ഷോപ്പുകൾ സംഘടിപ്പിച്ചു. ഈ വർക്ക്ഷോപ്പുകളിൽ പ്രാദേശീയരായ അധ്യാപകർ ഈ അധ്യാപന വിഭവങ്ങളുടെ പ്രായോഗികത മനസ്സിലാക്കി. ചില സ്ഥലങ്ങളിൽ കാലാവസ്ഥാ വ്യതിയാനത്തെ കുറിച്ച് അറിവുള്ള വിദഗ്ധർ ഈ വർക്ക്ഷോപ്പുകളിൽ പങ്കെടുക്കുകയും അവരുടെ അഭിപ്രായങ്ങൾ കൂട്ടിച്ചേർക്കുകയും ചെയ്തു. ഐക്യരാഷ്ട്ര സഭയുടെ സംരംഭങ്ങളായ UNCC: ലേൺ, വേൾഡ്‌ മെറ്റീറോളജിക്കൽ ഓർഗനൈസേഷൻ (WMO), ലോക കാലാവസ്ഥാ ഗവേഷണ പദ്ധതി (WCRP) എന്നിവയുമായി നല്ല ഒരു സഹകരണം ഈ പ്രോജക്ടിന് ഉണ്ട്. ഈ സംഘടനകൾ പ്രോജക്ടിന്റെ പദ്ധതികളും അധ്യാപക സഹായികളും പരിശോധിക്കുക മാത്രമല്ല, പ്രോജക്ടിനെ പിന്തുണക്കുകയും ചെയ്തു. ന്യൂയോർക്കിലെ UN തലസ്ഥാനത്ത് 2019 മെയ് 14 - 15 വരെ നടന്ന നാലാമത് UN STI Forum 2019 ലും 2019 ജൂലൈ 11 ന് നടന്ന High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development 2019 (HLPF 2019) ലും "Practices and Approaches on quality education towards environment and climate action" എന്ന വിഭാഗത്തിലും ഈ പ്രോജക്ട് സംഘത്തിന് ഈ പദ്ധതി അവതരിപ്പിക്കാൻ അവസരം ലഭിച്ചു. പിന്നീട് ഈ സംഘം പോളണ്ടിലെ COP 24 ലും, കാലാവസ്ഥാ പഠന ഇവൻ്റുകളിലും അധ്യാപകർക്കും കാലാവസ്ഥാ വിദഗ്ധർക്കുമായി നടത്തിയ കോൺഫറൻസുകളിലും വർക്ക്ഷോപ്പുകളിലും മറ്റും പങ്കെടുത്തു.

 

TROP ICSU യുവതലമുറയിലും, ആഗോളതലത്തിലും രാജ്യങ്ങളെ ഒന്നിച്ചു മുന്നോട്ടു കൊണ്ടുപോകുന്നതിൽ വളരെ പ്രസക്തമായ ഒന്നാണ്.

 

TROP ICSU പ്രോജക്ടിന്റെ മൂന്നു വർഷം നീളുന്ന ആദ്യഘട്ടം (2017-2019) International Science Council (ISC) ന്റെ സാമ്പത്തിക സഹായത്തോടെയാണ്‌ നടപ്പാക്കിയത്.

 

 

Credits

Translated from English to Malayalam

TROP ICSU Project Summary/Concept Note, Chemistry Lesson Plan on Carbon Compounds and Physics Lesson Plan on Blackbody Radiation by Gubbi Labs, Karnataka, India.

 

L’educazione ai cambiamenti climatici nel curricolo scolastico di vari paesi del mondo

  1. I cambiamenti climatici sono uno dei più importanti problemi dei nostri tempi
  2. Essi influenzano lo sviluppo sostenibile ed equo di tutti i paesi e dei loro abitanti
  3. Le soluzioni impongono che le popolazioni siano più consapevoli del problema
  4. Le misure per mitigare gli effetti dei cambiamenti climatici comporteranno soluzionisviluppate a livello locale ma basate sulla scienza globale.
  5. L’integrazione dell’educazione ai cambiamenti climatici nel sistema educativo formale può fornire alle generazioni presenti e future quelle competenze chiave che potranno determinare a livello locale soluzioni per l’adattamento, la mitigazione e la resilienza ai cambiamenti climatici.

Il progetto TROP ICSU (https://climatescienceteaching.org/https://tropicsu.org/) mira a integrare gli argomenti correlati coi cambiamenti climatici ai nuclei curricolari in tutti i livelli scolastici per accrescere negli studenti la consapevolezza delle cause e degli effetti dei cambiamenti climatici. Il TROP ICSU project fa parte della democratizzazione della conoscenza cosicché tutta l’umanità
possa investire il suo talento, le sue competenze e ambizioni per focalizzarsi su una via dedicata ai problemi dei cambiamenti climatici.

Lo scopo principale del progetto è fornire una fonte affidabile di risorse educative curate e validate che integrino gli argomenti dei cambiamenti climatici in nuclei curricolari del sistema educativo formale. Questo approccio assicurerà che tutti gli studenti, indipendentemente dallo studio delle varie discipline, diventino consapevoli delle cause e dell’impatto dei cambiamenti climatici, e siano
forniti di competenze che permettano loro di sviluppare a livello locale soluzioni innovative di questo problema globale.

Così il TROP ICSU project si allinea con gli obiettivi delle Nazioni Unite per lo Sviluppo Sostenibile (SDGs) per un’educazione di qualità (Obiettivo 4) e per l’azione sul clima (Obiettivo 13).

Per raggiungere questi obiettivi, il team per l’implementazione del TROP ICSU project, con sede all’ Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune, ha sviluppato, raccolto, curato e validato una collezione di risorse didattiche provenienti da diverse parti del mondo che possono essere usate dagli insegnanti per insegnare argomenti disciplinari con l’uso di esempi, studi
di caso, e attività correlate con i cambiamenti climatici. Il progetto presenta l’ approccio pedagogico innovativo di integrare l’educazione ai cambiamenti climatici nei curricoli esistenti. Come parte di questo progetto, il team ha sviluppato un gran numero di risorse didattiche (alcune con lesson plan dettagliati passo per passo) come prototipi che permettono di integrare argomenti sui cambiamenti
climatici nei nuclei curricolari. Si è adottato una metodologia dettagliata per assicurare la validità scientifica e l’integrazione continua degli argomenti sui cambiamenti climatici con quelli curricolari. In tal modo l’uso delle risorse TROP ICSU aiuteranno gli insegnanti a potenziare la qualità dell’apprendimento e insieme aumentare la consapevolezza negli studenti sui cambiamenti
climatici, senza allontanarsi dai nuclei curricolari.

Nella prima fase del progetto, il team ha condotto workshop per insegnanti ed educatori in India, Bhutan, Sud Africa, Uganda, Egitto, Francia, Austria, Regno Unito, Cina e Australia. A questi workshop, educatori locali hanno valutato l’efficacia delle risorse didattiche. In alcune località, anche esperti sui cambiamenti climatici hanno frequentato i workshop e fornito feedback. Solide collaborazioni ininterrotte sono state intraprese con organizzazioni delle Nazioni Unite come UNCC: Learn, la World Meteorological Organization (WMO), e il World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), che non solo hanno validato i lesson plan e gli strumenti didattici, ma hanno
anche convalidato l’intero progetto. Il team di progetto ha avuto l’opportunità di presentare il loro impegno educativo durante gli eventi sulla Science Education durante il quarto Forum UN STI  2019 il 14-15 maggio 2019 al quartier generale delle Nazioni Unite a New York e anche durante il  High Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development 2019 (HLPF 2019) al quartier generale
delle Nazioni Unite l’11 luglio 2019, in una sessione intitolata "Practices and Approaches on quality education towards environment and climate action". Infine il team ha partecipato agli eventi sull’educazione sul clima durante il COP 24 in Polonia e a conferenze e workshop per insegnanti ed esperti del clima.

L’initiativa del TROP ICSU è molto tempestiva, come dimostrato dal livello crescente di preoccupazione, in particolare della popolazione più giovane nel mondo, insieme con la mossa di alcune nazioni, come l’Italia, di includere apertamente i cambiamenti climatici nel curricolo scolastico di ogni fanciullo.

La prima fase del TROP ICSU project (2017-2019) è stata supportata da un finanziamento di tre
anni dell’ International Science Council (ISC).

Credits

Translated from English to Italian:

TROP ICSU Project Summary/Concept Note, Chemistry Lesson Plan on Carbon Compounds and Physics Lesson Plan on Blackbody Radiation by:
Dr Maddalena Macario
PhD in Plant biosystematics and ecology
PhD in Earth Science Education
Science teacher at Liceo Scientifico “Niccolò Copernico”, Prato, Italy

 

As an Undergraduate teacher of Earth Sciences or Physics or Math, you can teach how to build a mathematical model of the Earth’s climate system using Python. This lesson plan includes discussions, activities, and a detailed guide of how to create a computational model of Earth’s energy balance to understand its role in determining the surface temperature of the planet.

This lesson plan uses resources developed by Prof. David Archer from the University of Chicago. Specifically, it focuses on the “Time dependent Energy-Balance Model for the Earth” that includes fundamental thermodynamics concepts such as blackbody radiation and heat capacities. The model applies these concepts to study how the energy balance between the incident solar radiation and the outgoing terrestrial radiation governs the surface temperature of the planet, and consequently, how it evolves over time. The activity section of this lesson plan includes a detailed instruction manual that serves as a step-by-step guide to conceptualize David Archer’s model in numerical and algorithmic terms, eventually developing a computational model using Python programming.
Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Math, Earth Sciences and Physics.
This lesson plan was developed by Tatsam Garg, Ashoka University, India.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What is a Blackbody?
  2. What determines the average surface temperature of planet Earth?
  3. How do you use a mathematical model to build a computational model?
  4. How do you write a simple computational model in Python?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Mathematics, Earth Sciences, Phyics
Topic(s) in Discipline Thermodynamics, Blackbody Radiation

Heat Capacity, Computational Modelling with Python

Climate Topic Planetary Energy Balance, Planetary Climate

Climate Variability Record

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
2-3 hours

Contents

Video Lecture

(45 min)

A video lecture by Prof David Archer that explains electromagnetic radiation, the concept of blackbodies and blackbody Radiation. This video also includes discussions on the use of these concepts to explain a basic climate model for determining the surface temperature of a planet.

Go to the Video

Teaching Module

(45 min)

A set of tutorials to learn basic syntax in Python: ‘Introduction to Python: Beginners Guide and Tutorials’

Go to the Resource

Classroom/ Laboratory Activity

(60 min)

A programming activity with a detailed step-by-step guide to building the computational time-dependent energy balance model for Earth using Python based on the schematics explained in the video lecture.

The guide for this activity is provided here.

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

1 Introduction to the Time-Dependent Energy Balance Model for the Earth 1.     Play the video lecture, ‘Our first Climate Model’, by Prof David Archer, University of Chicago, to enable your students to understand the scientific background and the schematics of the climate model.

2.     Emphasize the following topics from the video lecture: Incident Solar Energy, the Solar Constant, behavior of a Blackbody, the Stephan-Boltzmann Law, heat capacities, and the heat capacity of water.

3.     Discuss what every parameter in the model means physically.

4.     Remind your students about the units of each quantity that would be required to verify dimensionally correct equations.

Go to the Resource

2 Prepare for Python Programming: By installing Jupyter Notebooks 1.     Ask your students to install a Python programming environment on their computers.

2.     For beginners, we recommend using Jupyter Notebooks. This environment allows you to access tutorials and a programming space where students can simultaneously read instructions and try their hands at programming.

3.     To access Jupyter Notebooks, install the ‘Anaconda-Navigator’ using this link.

4.     Once it is successfully installed on your computer, navigate to the homepage of the software, and click on ‘Install’ in the ‘Jupyter Notebook’ tab.

5.      Once installed, launch the notebook- the ‘Jupyter notebook Homepage’ will open as a webpage.

6.     Open a new ‘Python 3’ file to begin coding.

3 Introduction to Programming with Python Use the link to the Python tutorial database to teach the basics of Python programming such as printing text, defining variables, simple arithmetic operations, import and use of the ‘numpy’ and ‘matplotlib’ libraries, defining arrays and lists, using indices with arrays and lists, and loops (specifically ‘for’ loops). These introductory skills will be required for the ensuing classroom/laboratory activity.

The Python tutorial database can be accessed here. 

4 Classroom/Laboratory Activity Begin by recalling the Time-Dependent Energy Balance Model described in the first resource. Inform your students that this classroom activity involves developing the climate model using Python. This exercise has been adopted from Prof David Archer's course titled “Global Warming II: Create your own models in python”, available on Coursera here.

A detailed step-by-step guide for this activity is provided here for download.

1.     Share the instruction manual for the exercise with each student. The manual  walks you through the entire process of developing the model on Python.

2.     If you want the students to work their way through the exercise themselves, you may avoid sharing the manual with them. Instead, use it to motivate them in the right direction with hints.

As a high school or undergraduate Mathematics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching introductory statistics and specifically linear regression.

This lesson plan will allow you to teach introductory statistics through a linear regression assignment. The lesson plan includes a hands-on computer-based classroom activity to be conducted on a dataset of Global Temperature Anomalies (1850-2017). This activity includes a set of inquiry-based questions that will enable your students to apply their understanding of scatter plots, regression equations, correlation coefficients, linear regression, and confidence intervals for slopes.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in Mathematics.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. Use an example to describe linear regression analysis.
  2. Determine the difference in the confidence intervals for the slopes for two 30-year period datasets- 1850-1880 (beginning of industrial age) and 1987-2017 (last datapoint). What does the result suggest?
  3. Use linear regression analyses to describe how global temperatures have changed from 1850 (pre-industrial)- 2017 (last datapoint).
  4. Discuss reasons for global warming and its impact on Earth’s climate.

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school, Undergraduate
Discipline Mathematics
Topic(s) in Discipline Scatter Plots, Correlation Coefficients, Regression Equations, Linear Regression, Confidence Intervals for Slopes
Climate Topic Climate and the Cryosphere

Climate Variability Record

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
50-60 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(25 min)

A teaching module to explain the basics of scatter plots, correlation coefficients, regression equations, and linear regression

This can be accessed here:

For High School

For Undergraduate

Video micro-lecture

(~7 min)

A video micro-lecture to explain the confidence interval for the slope of a regression line

Go to the Video

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(20 min)

A classroom activity to apply understanding of linear regression using a dataset of the Global Temperature Anomalies (1850-2017).

Go to the Activity

 

Visualization (5 min)

An interactive visualization of the given dataset of Global Temperature Anomalies (1850-2017).

Go to the Resource

 

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

 

1 Topic introduction and discussion 1.         Use the teaching module, ‘Introduction-Linear Regression and Correlation’ by OpenStaxTM, Rice University (for High School level) or ‘Chapter-3: Linear Regression’ provided by Ramesh Sridharan, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (for Undergraduate level), to introduce these topics of basic statistics.

2.         Navigate to the sub-sections within the module to the basics of scatter plots, correlation coefficients, regression equations, and linear regression.

3.         Use the in-built practice exercises and quizzes to evaluate your students’ understanding of the topics.

For High School

For Undergraduate

2 Develop the topic further 1.   Use the video micro-lecture, ‘Confidence interval for the slope of a regression line’ by Khan Academy to explain this inference about a slope.

2.   Navigate to the next subsection and direct your students to solve practice problems on the confidence interval of slope of a regression line to enable better understanding of the topic.

This can be accessed here

3 Extend understanding 1.   Use the classroom activity, ‘Global Temperature Anomalies’ from Sustainability Math by Thomas J. Pfaff, Professor of Mathematics, Ithaca College, USA, to enable your students to apply their understanding of linear regression and confidence intervals of slopes of regression lines by using a dataset developed by Climatic Research Unit (University of East Anglia) in conjunction with the Hadley Centre (UK Met Office).

2.   This classroom activity includes a dataset of Global Temperature Anomalies observed from 1850 to 2017. These observations are taken as deviations from the Global Average Mean temperature for the period 1961-1990.

3.   This data is provided in an Excel spreadsheet that you may use in your classroom to explain the mathematical functions and methods.

4.   Direct your students to download the Excel file (with dataset) and proceed with the classroom activity.

5.   Encourage your students to answer topical questions by applying their understanding of scatter plots, correlation coefficients, regression equations, linear regression, and confidence intervals of slopes of regression lines.

6.   Use the regression analyses performed to initiate a discussion on the increase in average global temperatures from pre-industrial time (1850) to the last data point (2017) due to anthropogenically forced Global Warming (links to explanatory notes given within the tool).

This can be accessed here.

4 Discuss further 1.   Use the interactive visualization of the same dataset, ‘Average temperature anomaly, Global’ by Our World in Data, to encourage discussion amongst your students about the changes in the average global temperatures from the years 1850-2017.

2.   Discuss how these changes suggest that the planet is warming and therefore, could be impacting Earth’s climate.

These can be accessed here. 

As a high school or undergraduate Mathematics teacher, you can use this set of computer-based tools to help you in teaching introductory differential calculus and specifically polynomial differentiation.

The derivative at different points of a differentiable function (Image: Wikipedia)

This lesson plan will allow you to teach introductory derivatives and differentiation. The lesson plan includes a hands-on computer-based classroom activity to be conducted on a dataset of global annual mean surface air temperatures from 1880 to 2018. This activity includes a set of inquiry-based questions that will enable your students to apply their understanding of function composition and polynomial differentiation and to solve tangent line problems.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a ore topic in Mathematics.

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students find answers to:

  1. What are derivatives and tangent line equations?
  2. Using an example, describe polynomial differentiation.
  3. Is the global annual mean surface temperature increasing since 1950? Since 1880?
  4. What is the rate of change of global average temperatures?
  5. Predict the global average temperatures for 2030, 2050, and 2100.
  6. What is the latest rate of change of global average temperatures according to the last recorded data point (2018)?

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level High school
Discipline Mathematics
Topic(s) in Discipline Derivatives, Tangent Lines, Differentiation

Differentiation Rules, Function Composition

Polynomial Differentiation

Climate Topic Climate and the Atmosphere

Climate Variability Record

Location Global
Language(s) English
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
50-60 min

Contents

Teaching Module

(30 min)

A teaching module to explain the basics of derivatives, derivative rules, and differentiation.

Go to the Resource

Classroom/ Laboratory activity

(20 min)

A classroom activity to apply understanding of derivatives and polynomial differentiation using a dataset of Global Average Temperatures.

Go to the Activity

Visualizations

(10 min)

A set of visualizations using similar datasets to better understand the changes in global surface temperatures in recent times.

These can be accessed at:

Visualization 1

Visualization 2

Visualization 3

Here is a step-by-step guide to using this lesson plan in the classroom/laboratory. We have suggested these steps as a possible plan of action. You may customize the lesson plan according to your preferences and requirements.

Step 1: Topic introduction and discussion 

  1. Use the teaching module, ‘Differentiation: definition and basic derivative rules’ by Khan Academy, to introduce the concept of derivatives and differentiation.
  2. Navigate to the sub-sections within the module to explain derivative rules, the power rule, and how to differentiate polynomials.
  3. Use the in-built practice exercises and quizzes to evaluate your students’ understanding of the topics.

Go to the Resource

 

Step2 2: Extend understanding

  1. Use the classroom activity, ‘Global Average Temperature’ from Sustainability Math by Thomas J. Pfaff, Professor of Mathematics, Ithaca College, USA, to enable your students to apply their understanding of derivatives and polynomial differentiation using a dataset from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS).
  2. This classroom activity includes a dataset of the global annual mean surface air temperature linked from NASA’s observations from 1950 to 2018. It also includes data from 1880 to 2018.
  3. This data is provided in an Excel spreadsheet.
  4. The classroom activity also includes a Word document that contains directions on how to use different mathematical methods on the data provided.
  5. It further includes questions that you may wish to use in your classroom to explain mathematical functions and methods and to initiate a discussion on the increase in global annual mean surface temperature due to anthropogenically forced global warming.
  6. Direct your students to download the Excel file (with dataset) and the Word document (with directions to use the dataset and a set of questions to analyze the dataset).
  7. Proceed with the classroom activity and encourage your students to answer the questions by applying their understanding of function composition, tangent line equation, and polynomial differentiation.

Go to the Resource

 

Step 3: Discuss further

Use the visualizations, ‘Global Temperature’ by NASA/GISS, ‘Temperature Change; 1880-2019’ by Antti Lipponen using NASA GISTEMP data, and ‘Simulated global temperature change’ by US Geological Survey (USGS) to encourage discussion amongst your students about the real and simulated increase of global surface air temperatures from the years 1880-2020 and 1850-2100 respectively. Discuss how these changes could be affecting Earth’s climate in recent times.

These can be accessed at:

Visualization 1

Visualization 2

Visualization 3

As a Middle School and High School English Language teacher, you can use a talk about climate change and an associated comprehension quiz to help you teach listening comprehension.

. This lesson plan uses the TED talk, “The disarming case to act right now on climate change” by Climate Activist, Greta Thunberg, for listening comprehension followed by answering inferential questions, detecting emotive undertones as well as answering narrow focus questions about the vocabulary used. This lesson plan also includes an exercise of writing a response to the speaker via an informal letter, thereby allowing the students to articulate their own thoughts and opinions on the matter of climate change activism and to combine those with the information they have gathered.

Thus, the use of this lesson plan allows you to integrate the teaching of a climate science topic with a core topic in English Language, English for Academic Purposes (EAP) or Functional English.

Teacher-contributed lesson plan by Dr. Pooja Sancheti, IISER Pune, India

Questions

Use this lesson plan to help your students to:

  1. Listen carefully and comprehend a spoken text (a talk) in English
  2. Answer narrow focus as well as broad stroke questions related to the spoken text
  3. Write a letter to the Climate Activist, Greta Thunberg, in response to her speech

How to transform apocalypse fatigue into action on global warming

Greta Thunberg |TEDx Stockholm

About Lesson Plan

Grade Level Middle School, High school
Discipline English Language, Functional English

English for Academic Purposes (EAP)

Topic(s) in Discipline Listening Comprehension, Inferential Questions, Emotive Undertones, Vocabulary, Creative Writing, Letter Writing
Climate Topic Introduction to climate change, Climate Activism
Location Global
Language(s) English, Transcript available in 34 languages
Access Online, Offline
Approximate
Time Required
50-60 min

Contents

Reading

(10 min)

A brief introduction to the Climate Activist, Greta Thunberg, whose talk will be examined for listening comprehension in this lesson plan.

Go to the Reading

Video

(~11 min)

A video talk by Greta Thunberg to use for listening comprehension and follow-up exercises. The transcript for this talk is available in 34 languages.

Go to the Video

A questionnaire (~25 min) based on the talk for in-class discussion can be found here.

Optional Homework Assignment

(25 min)

A suggested homework assignment of writing an informal letter as a response to the talk by Greta Thunberg following the in-class discussion.

Go to the Assignment