Reading: Ecosystem-Based Conservation in Central Africa

A case study titled ‘Mountain Gorillas Ecosystem Services and Local Livelihoods in Rwanda, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo’ from the report ‘Biodiversity, Climate Change and Sustainable Development – Harnessing Synergies and Celebrating Successes’. This case study describes ecosystem-based conservation of the mountain gorilla in Central Africa. It focuses on the vulnerability of mountain gorillas as well as the local communities in the region due to climate change and its impacts. 

Students will learn about threats faced by mountain gorillas, in terms of habitat loss, community use of forest resources, and climate change. They will also learn of ecosystem-based approaches of mountain gorilla conservation. Additionally, students will understand how mountain gorilla habitat conservation is linked to livelihoods of local communities in the region. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What are the threats faced by the mountain gorilla of Central Africa due to climate change?
  2. Discuss ecosystem-based conservation approaches for the conservation of mountain gorilla and their habitat.
  3. Discuss the role of different stakeholders in ecosystem-based conservation.

About the Tool 

Tool Name 9.8. Case #8 Mountain Gorillas Ecosystem Services and Local Livelihoods in Rwanda, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo from Biodiversity, Climate Change and Sustainable Development harnessing synergies and Celebrating Successes
Discipline Biological Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Conservation, Ecosystem-based Conservation, Habitat Loss, Mountain Gorilla
Climate Topic Climate and the Biosphere
Type of Tool Reading
Grade Level High School, Undergraduate
Location Africa, Central Africa, Rwanda, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo
Language English
Translation
Developed by Guy Midgley, Sarshen Marais, Mandy Barnett and Katinka Wågsæther, University of South African National Biodiversity Institute, Conservation South Africa and Indigo Development and Change
Hosted at UNFCCC
Link Reading Link
Access Online, Offline
Computer Skills Basic

Reading: Human Migration and Displacement

A reading from ‘The Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene’ by The Center for Climate and Security on human migration and displacement caused by climate change. It describes the impacts of climate change on voluntary and forced human migration and displacement through examples from South Asia, the Middle East and western China.

Students will learn about the key drivers and impacts of climate change that influence migration and displacement. They will also understand the role of climate change in increasing the likelihood of regional conflict. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. How does climate change affect migration and displacement?
  2. What are the reasons behind involuntary and voluntary migration and displacement?
  3. What are the four drivers of migration that result from climate change?
  4. What role does climate change play in the likelihood of regional conflict?

About the Tool 

Tool NameMigration and Displacement in a Changing Climate
DisciplineSocial Sciences, International Relations
Topic(s) in DisciplineHuman Migration, Displacement, Conflict, Security, Peace and Conflict Studies
Climate Topic Climate and Society
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelHigh school, Undergraduate
LocationGlobal, South Asia, Middle East, Sub-Saharan Africa, China 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byRobert McLeman in Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene eds Caitlin E. Werrell and Francesco Femia
Hosted atThe Center for Climate and Security
Linkhttps://climateandsecurity.files.wordpress.com/2017/06/12_migration-and-displacement.pdf 
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: GM Crops in Sub-Saharan Africa

A reading by John Agaba, Alliance for Science, Cornell University, that describes the importance of food security in Sub-Saharan Africa, in the face of climate change. This reading includes several examples of genetically modified crops and why they are favoured by farmers in Sub-Saharan African countries.

Students will learn about genetically modified crops and some arguments surrounding their utilization. They will further understand how genetically modified crops could possibly bolster food security in several Sub-Saharan African countries that are dealing with failed crops due to climate change.

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Briefly describe Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs). 
  2. Why do farmers prefer to plant hybrid or genetically modified crops? List some of the examples.
  3. Discuss the arguments surrounding GM crop utilization in Africa.

About the tool

Tool NameAfrican farmers want GMO seeds to help weather climate change
DisciplineBiological Sciences
Topic(s) in DisciplineGenetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), GMO Crops
Climate Topic Climate and Agriculture; Climate and the Biosphere; Climate Mitigation and Adaptation
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelHigh School
LocationGlobal, Africa
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byJohn Agaba
Hosted atAlliance for Science, Cornell University
LinkLink
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic

Classroom/Laboratory Activity: Climate Change and Food Security in Africa

A classroom/laboratory activity to learn about suitable climatic conditions for a crop and to determine how climate change may affect food production (specifically, cocoa production).

Reading: Coffee Production and Food Security

A reading from ‘The Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene’ by The Center for Climate and Security that discusses the impact of climate change on crop security. The reading specifically discusses the impacts of climate change on coffee production in different parts of the world. It further lists countries that primarily rely on coffee export for economic sustainability and related security issues. 

Students will understand the impacts of climate change on food security. They will also learn how climate-sensitive crops such as coffee relate to economic and political stability in some parts of the world.  

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. How does climate change impact food security?
  2. What is the impact of climate change on coffee production?
  3. Discuss the impact of climate change on coffee production and security in Honduras and Uganda.

About the Tool 

Tool NameClimate, Coffee and Security
DisciplineSocial Sciences, International Relations
Topic(s) in DisciplineFood Security, Security, Coffee, Peace and Conflict Studies 
Climate Topic Climate and Agriculture; Climate Change and Food Security
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelUndergraduate
LocationGlobal, South America, Africa, Central America, Honduras, Uganda 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byShiloh Fetzek in Epicenters of Climate and Security: The New Geostrategic Landscape of the Anthropocene eds Caitlin E. Werrell and Francesco Femia
Hosted atThe Center for Climate and Security
Linkhttps://climateandsecurity.files.wordpress.com/2017/06/11_the-coffee-belt.pdf 
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Video: Food Insecurity in Somalia

A video titled ‘Locust swarm threatens Somalia food crisis’ by AP Archive that discusses the threat of the recent desert locust outbreak to Somalia’s food and crop production. The video also discusses how the rapid maturing of the desert locust may lead to mass breeding and result in further migration to other regions of Africa. The video highlights the fact that since Somalia may already be vulnerable, the locust outbreak could cause additional stress  and cause food insecurity. 

Students will learn about the link between climate change, changing weather patterns, desert locusts breeding and migration, and food insecurity in Somalia. They will also learn about potential strategies to prevent future outbreaks. Students will further understand the need for international cooperation to tackle the situation. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Discuss the impact of the desert locusts outbreak on agriculture and food security in Somalia.
  2. How has climate change caused changes  in weather patterns in Somalia? 

About the tool: 

Tool NameLocust swarm threatens Somalia food crisis
DisciplineSocial Sciences, Agricultural Sciences
Topic(s) in DisciplineLocust Plague, Desert Locust, Food Security, Agriculture
Climate Topic Climate Change and Food Security; Climate and Agriculture
Type of tool Video (5 mins 15 secs)
Grade LevelHigh School, Undergraduate 
LocationAfrica, East Africa, Somalia
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byAP Archive 
Hosted atYouTube
Linkhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aoclw68b0mM
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: The Locust Plague of East Africa

An article titled ‘A plague of locusts has descended on East Africa. Climate change may be to blame’ by Madeleine Stone in the National Geographic that discusses the relationship between the 2019-20 desert locust swarms in East Africa and climate change. The article focuses on how rising sea surface temperatures, storms and cyclones, changing ocean circulation patterns caused by human activity may have triggered this trans-oceanic disaster and destruction of food supply. 

Students will learn about how climate change triggered the mass migration of the desert locusts over East Africa. They will also learn about the unseasonal cyclones and storms that led to unusual locust breeding that resulted in the widespread destruction of crops and disrupted the food chain in East Africa. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What are desert locusts?
  2. Is climate change responsible for the current locust outbreak in East Africa? Discuss.
  3. How is the locust plague causing food insecurity in some countries?

About the tool: 

Tool NameA plague of locusts has descended on East Africa. Climate change may be to blame
DisciplineEnvironmental Sciences, Social Sciences
Topic(s) in DisciplineLocust Plague, Desert Locust, Food Security, Species Migration, Agriculture 
Climate Topic Climate Change and Food Security; Climate and Agriculture 
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelHigh School, Undergraduate 
LocationAfrica, East Africa, Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byMadeleine Stone
Hosted atNational Geographic
LinkLink
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Reading: Climate Change and Locust Swarms

An article titled ‘Q&A: Are the 2019-20 locust swarms linked to climate change?’ by Daisy Dunne in Carbon Brief that discusses the potential link between climate change and the locust outbreak in East Africa and surrounding regions. The article discusses how climate change has influenced heavy rains, unusual storm activity and a change in the ‘Indian Ocean Dipole’ from East Africa, the Middle East, parts of Asia to Western Australia. The article further tracks the beginning and spread of the outbreak causing mass crop failure. 

Students will learn about how climate change potentially led to the mass breeding and outbreak of desert locusts in East Africa and surrounding regions. They will also learn about how changing weather patterns, rising sea temperatures and altered oceanic currents can provide breeding grounds for desert locusts. Students will further learn about what makes desert locusts resilient, allowing them to migrate and cause mass crop failure in many countries. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What countries were affected by the locust plague of 2019-20?
  2. What weather conditions are favourable for locust breeding?
  3. Is climate change responsible for the current locust outbreak? Discuss.
  4. How is the locust plague causing food insecurity in some countries?

About the tool: 

Tool NameQ&A: Are the 2019-20 locust swarms linked to climate change?
DisciplineEnvironmental Sciences 
Topic(s) in DisciplineLocust Plague, Desert Locust, Food Security, Species Migration, Agriculture
Climate Topic Climate Change and Food Security; Climate and Agriculture 
Type of tool Reading
Grade LevelHigh School, Undergraduate 
LocationAfrica, East Africa, Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia, Yemen, India, Pakistan
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byDaisy Dunne
Hosted atCarbon Brief
LinkLink
AccessOnline/Offline
Computer SkillsBasic

Audio: Fall of the Pyramid Age of Egypt

An audio by Michael Dee at ‘Teddy Talks’, University of Oxford that discusses the potential role of climate change in the collapse of the ‘pyramid age’ in Egypt. The audio discusses a timeline of the historic Northeast African region and its societies at the beginning of the ‘pyramid age’. Dee then discusses the use and effectiveness of radiocarbon dating to map out the impacts of climate change and the ‘mega-drought’ that potentially led to the fall of the Egyptian, Mesopotamia and Indus Valley civilizations.   

Students will learn about the history and fall of the Egyptian Civilization. They will also learn about the debate on whether the collapse was caused by climate change or inefficient governance. Students will also learn about the various environmental events in neighbouring regions that potentially affected ancient Egypt. 

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What is the ‘pyramid age’? 
  2. How did the ‘mega-drought’ cause the collapse of the Mesopotamian civilization?
  3. Discuss whether climate change caused the fall of the civilization.

About the tool

Tool NameClimate Change and the fall of the Pyramid Age of Egypt 
DisciplineHumanities, Social Sciences
Topic(s) in DisciplineClimate and Society 
Climate Topic History, Historical Studies, Archaeology, Anthropology, Radiocarbon Dating, Egyptian Civilization, Pyramid Age
Type of tool Audio (11 mins 30 secs)
Grade LevelHigh School, Undergraduate
LocationAfrica, Egypt 
LanguageEnglish 
Translation
Developed byThe University of Oxford Podcasts 
Hosted atThe University of Oxford
Linkhttps://podcasts.ox.ac.uk/climate-change-and-fall-pyramid-age-egypt
AccessOnline
Computer SkillsBasic 

Reading: Climate Change and Mountain Gorillas of Central Africa

A case study titled ‘Mountain gorillas in the Virunga mountains face new threats as their habitat changes’ from ‘Wildlife in a Changing Climate’. This case study describes threats to mountain gorillas that live in the Virunga Volcanoes Conservation Area of Central Africa due to climate-change induced shifts in vegetation. It also describes a brief history of conservation efforts of mountain gorillas as well as the current threats to their habitat.

Students will learn about how climate change is affecting the habitat of endemic flora and fauna in the reserve. They will also learn about mountain gorilla conservation in the midst of civil war, habitat degradation, and poaching.

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. What are the threats that the mountain gorillas of Central Africa face due to climate change?
  2. Briefly discuss how the mountain gorilla of Central Africa is a conservation success story.

About the Tool 

Tool Name Box 5: Mountain gorillas in the Virunga mountains face new threats as their habitat changes from Wildlife in a changing climate
Discipline Biological Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Biodiversity, Biogeography, Conservation, Vegetation Shift, Mountain Gorilla, Habitat
Climate Topic Climate and the Biosphere
Type of Tool Reading
Grade Level Undergraduate, Graduate
Location Africa, Uganda
Language English
Translation
Developed by Tetra Tech ARD U.S.
Hosted at Climatelinks of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Link Reading Link
Access Online, Offline
Computer Skills Basic

E-learning Course: Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation in African Cities

An e-learning course to understand the drivers and impacts of climate change in cities, and to learn about various planning and decision-making approaches for climate change adaptation in African cities.

Reading: Impacts of Climate Change on Biodiversity in Uganda

A reading from the report of the USAID titled ‘Climate Change and Biodiversity in Uganda’ that describes the effect of climatic and non-climatic stressors on its biodiversity and ecosystem goods and services. This reading describes expected changes in flora and fauna, increase in frequency and severity of floods and forest fires in specific regions of Uganda due to climate change. This reading is from chapters 2.2 (Climate Change and Potential Impacts on Biodiversity) and 2.3 ( Non- Climate Stressors on Biodiversity & Ecosystem Goods & Services) of the report.

Students will learn about how an increase in temperature can affect the hydrological cycle, change the distribution of flora and fauna, lead to decrease in availability of ecosystem resources, cause colonization by invasive species, trigger human wildlife conflicts, cause natural disasters and disease outbreaks, and affect the livelihoods of people in Uganda.  They will also learn about how climatic and non-climatic stressors potentially alter ecosystems.

Use this tool to help your students find answers to: 

  1. Discuss how climate change can affect biodiversity in Uganda. 
  2. List how climatic stressors affect ecosystem goods and services.
  3. How do climatic stressors affect non-climatic stressors?
  4. Discuss how climate change and loss of biodiversity can lead to increased human-wildlife conflict?
  5. How will climate change affect the livelihoods of people in Uganda?

About the Tool 

Tool Name Climate Change and Biodiversity in Uganda
Discipline Biological Sciences
Topic(s) in Discipline Biodiversity, Ecosystem, Ecological Stressors, Ecosystem Goods and Services, Habitat, Habitat Loss
Climate Topic Climate and the Biosphere
Type of Tool Reading
Grade Level Undergraduate, Graduate
Location Africa, Uganda
Language English
Translation
Developed by Tetra Tech ARD U.S.
Hosted at Climatelinks of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)
Link Reading Link
Access Online, Offline
Computer Skills Basic