A video micro-lecture that explains carbonate buffering in the ocean. It includes discussions on the changes in the chemical composition of the ocean caused by a higher concentration of dissolved CO2, ocean acidification and the resulting effect on ocean biota.
A micro-lecture that describes the vibrational modes of polyatomic molecules, how these modes determine whether the molecules are IR inactive or IR active and explains why most IR active polyatomic gas molecules are greenhouse gases.
A reading that discusses how chemical bonds in molecules respond to incident IR light and absorb IR energy during certain modes of vibration. The reading includes discussions on the vibrational modes of water vapor and carbon dioxide (CO2) molecules and explains why these gases act as greenhouse gases.
A reading that introduces hydrocarbons, fossil fuels, and the products of combustion of different hydrocarbons such as carbon dioxide- a greenhouse gas.
A reading that explains Earth’s equable climate in the past using the theories, Hadley Cells, Convective Cloud Feedback, Polar Stratospheric Clouds, and Tropical Cyclones.
A set of classroom/laboratory activities to reconstruct Earth’s past climate using isotopic composition data from ice cores and to highlight the influence of orbital forcing and atmospheric carbon dioxide feedback on Earth’s climate.
A visualization to observe, understand, explore, and analyze the molecular structure of carbon compounds (CO2, CH4), the effect of electromagnetic radiation on these molecules, and the role of greenhouse gases in climate change.
A teaching module that demonstrates the use of linear and quadratic regression to analyze Arctic sea ice extent data and the use of graphs, sample correlations, and multiple regression to analyze atmospheric CO2 level data, solar irradiance data, and average global temperature data.
A classroom/laboratory activity to learn about oxygen isotopes (18O and 16O); understand the relative distribution of these isotopes in the atmosphere, ocean, and cryosphere; and explore how the concentration of these isotopes can be used as indicators of paleoclimate.
A reading that discusses the use of the law of conservation of angular momentum to explain the extent of Hadley cells.
A model/simulator to learn about vertical energy (heat) transfer in the Earth’s system and planetary energy balance.
A reading that introduces a single-layer atmosphere model, which is based on the emissivity of thermal radiation, to explain atmospheric warming.
A reading to learn about the energy balance of planet Earth and to understand atmospheric warming by using a single-layer atmosphere model.
A model/simulator to understand the effect of greenhouse gases on outgoing energy flux, and to compare the absorption of infrared radiation by various greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor.
A visualization to learn about the infrared (IR) spectra of different greenhouse gases and the effect of greenhouse gases on the Earth’s climate.